What I am asking for is if there is a source that fluently describe everything that went out when the jar was opened. I already know that it contained any kind of sickness, death, but was there any bad traits included? I mean hope is something people have. In a relative way we can assume that greed, jealousy and other negative traits could be included in the jar too, but I am not sure if there is a source to support that.

I am already aware of this question: What exactly was in Pandora's Box?

What can we know about the myth according to Hesiod or other ancient Greek sources?

If any Greek philologist spot my question, I would be really grateful to get links on Greek sources to study, as I am Greek myself, so sources in Greek are very welcome. (That doesn't mean that I won't appreciate a source in English though)

If there are NO exact on specific things, are there any groups of things that can be contained in the jar?

Edit: What I am asking for is if there is a way to confirm or deny for sure that greed, jealousy and other negative human traits were included in the jar. I also ask for the source that supports that, but being limited to ancient Greece and not Greek Roman era.

  • 1
    Can you explain why that link doesn't answer your question, and what more you're looking for that the linked question doesn't answer?
    – cmw
    Jul 30, 2022 at 22:55
  • Hello and thank you for your comment. What I want to KNOW instead of assuming, is if any bad traits for human beings were in the jar. Like jealousy, greed, malice etc etc. And if so, what is the source that can support it? Was jealousy and greed human traits before the jar opened of were those traits included along with all the other bad things?
    – George Eco
    Jul 31, 2022 at 22:52
  • For instance, in Hesiod's Theogony 100 ἄλλα δὲ μυρία λυγρὰ κατ᾽ ἀνθρώπους ἀλάληται· I am asking what were those "λυγρά" things. It might refer to the following ones or describe human traits that cause misfortune and negative outcomes. I try to explain
    – George Eco
    Jul 31, 2022 at 23:11
  • 1
    I'll have to do some digging, as it's very difficult to prove a negative. Sadly, most of my books are packed away, but I can probably find the relevant information.
    – cmw
    Aug 1, 2022 at 19:14
  • 1
    No need! This area is my true passion, so I'll get to it soon.
    – cmw
    Aug 1, 2022 at 20:08

2 Answers 2


This question is much more complicated than it seems at first glance, and there's a lot that could be said about how the Greeks conceived of personality traits and why we should never think about myths in a purely logical fashion.

But I think if we tried asking an ancient Greek this question, they would say that yes, of course, things like greed and jealousy were in the pithos. We can say this with some confidence because most famously elpis (hope) was in the box, and this is a comparable trait to something like greed.

There is, however, a difference between someone being greedy and greed itself personified as a daemon of sorts. Greed and Hope are abstract concepts made concrete by turning them into divine powers, but they are not necessarily required for being greedy or being hopeful. Personality traits instead are what the gods gave people. For example, in creating Pandora, Hesiod in the Theogony says that:

[Hermes] the Guide, the Slayer of Argos, contrived within her lies and crafty words and a deceitful nature at the will of loud thundering Zeus, and the Herald of the gods put speech in her. And he called this woman Pandora (All-Gifts), because all they who dwelt on Olympos gave each a gift, a plague to men who eat bread.

So personality traits, what people are like, exist separately from what's inside the pithos, while one could conceive of something like Greed being released upon mankind when the pithos is opened.

  • Yes, giving Pandora deceitful nature, lying and other personality features, makes sure that not all negative traits were in the pithos. Proabably but there is a problem. Pandora was created by gods and humankind was created by Promytheas, so they are different entities. It is really complicated because it can be considered a philosophical question. So I wonder if we can tell with confidence that bad traits as traits, came out of the pithos and spread to the humankind.
    – George Eco
    Aug 8, 2022 at 23:40

In the original Greek myths, there is no specification of the maladies that issue from the box after it is opened.

However, in post-Renaissance fables the practice was to attribute the standard Catholic mortal sins to be the contents of the box. So, for example, we have the novel on Pandora along these lines by Andrew Olimpi, which reads as follows:

Iuppiter arrogantium in vase posuit.
Juppiter put arrogance in the box.

Mars cupititatem posuit in vase.
Mars put greed in the box.

Iuno invidiam in vase posuit.
Juno put jealousy in the box.

Venus vanitatem in vase posuit.
Venus put vanity in the box.

Minerva iram in vase posuit.
Minerva put anger in the box

Neptunus superbiam in vase posuit.
Neptune put pride in the box.

Pluto terrorem in vase posuit.
Pluto put fear in the box.

So, the seven deadly sins are placed in the box, one by each god. In this account the standard sin, luxuria (lust), is replaced by fear and gluttony is inexplicably missing replaced by arrogance, a duplicate for pride.

  • Thanks for this answer. And that is exactly why I am asking for sources from that specific era. Ancient Greece, before Roman Empire. There is a problem with what every god had put into the box. Jupiter putting arrogance? Ok. Juno putting jealousy? Yes! Both make sense. Pluto puts fear accepted, Neptune putting pride, is accepted but vanity can be included into the pride so maybe both belong to Venus? But Venus should add Lust. Whatever. What I believe is totally wrong here, is Minerva and anger. But Minerva is not a Greek godess, its Roman. ΑΘΗΝΑ would never have anything to do with anger.
    – George Eco
    Aug 8, 2022 at 23:58
  • It needs a lot of research to understand exactly what an ancient god or goddess is all about. ΑΘΗΝΑ was really misunderstood as an entity by Romans, and that is completely natural to happen. So sources of that era have many differences from the original Greek gods. In any case, thanks for bringing up that information on Andrew Olimpi.
    – George Eco
    Aug 9, 2022 at 0:02

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