1

Many websites refer to the Tamil legend of a submerged land off southern India, where the sangams took place. E.g. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_Sangams This lost land is often equated with Kumari Kandam or Mu/Lemuria.

Apparantly this land was the site of a series of meetings (a sangam) that lasted 4400 years. This first sangam collected or created the oldest Tamil stories and poems. But all records were lost when the city flooded. The second sangam lasted 3700 years, but this city was also destroyed in a flood. The third sangam lasted 1850 years and gave us the Tamil literature we have today.

The claim is usually sourced to Nakkirar's "Iraiyanar Akapporul" commentary. Nakkirar was apparently a famous Tamil scholar. He wrote a commentary on ancient love poems, and his commentary mentioned the sangams and their location, duration, etc. I can find plenty of summaries of what he said online. But I cannot find a direct translation. I want to see exactly what he said, and not just an overview. The only translation of the "Iraiyanar Akapporul" that I can find online does not include his sangam comments. https://archive.org/details/dli.jZY9lup2kZl6TuXGlZQdjZpd.TVA_BOK_0009005/page/n5/mode/2up I have Googled, asked on Quora and asked on Reddit (the mythology sub), but with no luck.

I am not looking for Nakkirar's entire commentary. I only want the parts that deal with the sangams. Can anyone help?

1 Answer 1

1

Some time after posting that question, I asked the same question on another forum, and received the following translation from a Tamil poet called Vijayanarasimhan. He goes into more detail in his excellent post: https://sangamtamilpoetry.quora.com/The-Legend-of-the-Three-Tamil-Sangams?ch=10&oid=86056254&share=c2548811&srid=z9F0&target_type=post

Here is Vijayanarasimhan's translation of the relevant part of Nakkeerar's introduction to the Iraiyanaar Kalaviyal. Quote:

The Pandiyars established three Sangams called Thalai Sangam, Idai Sangam, and Kadai Sangam.

Among them, those who were in the Thalai Sangam are Agathiyanaar, Thiripuram eritha virisadai kadavul (God Shivan), Kunru-erintha Murugavel (God Murugan), Murinjiyoor Mudinagarayar, Nithiyin Kizhavan (Guberan) and five hundred and forty-nine (549) other poets, including them a total of four thousand four hundred and forty-nine (4449) poets composed songs (in the assembly of the Sangam), so it is said. Their works include many Paripaadal, Muthunaarai, Muthukurugu, Kaliyaavirai, etc. It is held that they ran the Sangam for a total of four thousand four hundred and forty (4440) years. They are said to be patronized by eighty-nine (89) (Pandiyan kings) from Kaai-cina-vazhuthi to Kadun-kon, of whom seven Pandiyan kings ascended the dais as poets. Madurai, which was (later) engulfed by the ocean, is said to be the location where they ran the Sangam and researched Tamil. Agathiyam is said to be their (grammar) book.

Now, those who were in the Idai Sangam are Agathiyanaar, Tholkaappiyanaar, Irunthaiyoor Karunkozhi Mosi, Velloorkkaappiyan, Sirupandarangan, Thiraiyan Maaran, Thuvarai Komaan, Keeranthai and fifty-nine (59) other poets, including them a total of three thousand and seven hundred (3700) poets composed songs (in the assembly of the Sangam), so it is said. Their works include Kali, Kurugu, Vendaali, Viyaazha maalai akaval, etc. Agathiyam, Tholkaappiyam, Maapuraanam, Isai-nunukkam, Boothapuraanam, etc, are said to be their (grammar) books. It is said that they ran the Sangam for a total of three thousand and seven hundred (3700) years. They are said to be patronized by fifty-nine (59) (Pandiyan kings) from Venther Sezhiyan to Muda-thirumaaran, of whom five Pandiyan kings ascended the dais as poets. Kapaadapuram is said to be the location where they ran the Sangam and researched Tamil. Like ancient times, Pandiyan territory was engulfed by the ocean (again).

Now, those who were in the Kadai Sangam are Sirumethaaviyaar, Sentham-bhoothanaar, Arivudai-aranaar, Perunkunroor Kizhaar, Ilanthirumaaran, Madurai Aasiriyar Nallanthuvanaar, Madurai Maruthan-ilanaaganaar, Kanakkaayanaar Maganaar Nakkeeranaar and forty-nine (49) other poets, including them a total of four hundred and forty nine (449) poets composed songs (in the assembly of the Sangam), so it is said. Their works include Nedunthogai Naanooru, Kurunthogai Naanooru, Natrinai Naanooru, Pura-naanooru, Ainkuru-nooru, Pathitru-paththu, Nootraimbathu Kali, Ezhubathu Paripaadal, Koothu, Vari, Sitrisai, Perisai, etc. Agathiyam and Tholkaappiyam are said to be their (grammar) books. It is said that they ran the Sangam for a total of thousand eight hundred and fifty years (1850) years. They are said to be patronized by forty-nine (49) (Pandiyan kings) from Muda-thirumaran, who has recovered from ocean engulfing, to Ukkira Peruvazhuthi, of whom three Pandiyan kings ascended the dais as poets. Uththara-madurai is said to be the location where they ran the Sangam and researched Tamil.

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.