I am looking for a variety of answers. Some mythological figures, such as the Watchers in 1 Enoch, are entities that chose to descend to the mortal world to copulate with humans and teach humans (in the ways of magic, war, etc.). What other deities or non-human beings like the Watchers accompany humanity as observers or teachers?

Additionally, what humans (or other creatures), such as Tithonus in Greek mythology, have gained immortality and thus are bound to remain alongside humans indefinitely?

I am also interested in those aforementioned beings present in works of epic poetry.

Thank you for any insight.

  • You mean aside from deities themselves? Jun 28, 2023 at 8:36
  • Would the Moirai or the Erinyes count? Jul 1, 2023 at 23:32
  • Yes, aside from the prominent deities of pantheons. The Moirai and Erinyes seem more to me as worldly forces than what I'm looking for, but I appreciate the notion and will look into the similar realm of entity!
    – Koios
    Jul 3, 2023 at 20:17

1 Answer 1


About the part of watching the humanity,in Greek mythology, there are the daimones, described by Hesiod as spirits placed by Zeus to watch over mortals, observing their acts and judgments, the daimones themselves were originally the first generation of mortal men, who lived in the golden age, and were transformed into daimones after their deaths

These passages are taken from the Theoi website:

Hesiod, Works & Days 109 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :

"First of all the deathless gods who dwell on Olympos made a Golden (khryseoi) Race of mortal men who lived in the time of Kronos (Cronus) when he was reigning in heaven. And they lived like gods without sorrow of heart, remote and free from toil and grief: miserable age rested not on them; but with legs and arms never failing they made merry with feasting beyond the reach of all evils. When they died, it was as though they were overcome with sleep, and they had all good things; for the fruitful earth unforced bare them fruit abundantly and without stint. They dwelt in ease and peace upon their lands with many good things, rich in flocks and loved by the blessed gods. But after earth had covered this generation--they are called Pure Spirits (daimones hagnoi) dwelling on the earth (epikhthonioi), and are kindly, delivering from harm, and guardians of mortal men; for they roam everywhere over the earth, clothed in mist and keep watch on judgements and cruel deeds, givers of wealth [i.e. agricultural bounty]; for this royal right also they received."

Hesiod, Works & Days 238 ff :

"For those who practise violence and cruel deeds far-seeing Zeus, the son of Kronos (Cronus), ordains a punishment. Often even a whole city suffers for a bad man who sins and devises presumptuous deeds, and [Zeus] the son of Kronos lays great trouble upon the people, famine and plague together, so that the men perish away, and their women do not bear children, and their houses become few, through the contriving of Zeus Olympios (Olympian). And again, at another time, the son of Kronos either destroys their wide army, or their walls, or else makes an end of their ships on the sea. You princes, mark well this punishment you also; for the deathless gods are near among men and mark all those who oppress their fellows with crooked judgements, and reck not the anger of the gods. For upon the bounteous earth Zeus has thrice ten thousand Spirits (daimones), Watchers of mortal men, and these keep watch on judgements and deeds of wrong as they roam, clothed in mist, all over the earth."

On the part of teaching humans, Prometheus was responsible for giving them the fire, and other gods are also described as teaching certain practices, Hephaestus and Athena are described as having taught humans how to build houses, as well as smithing and weaving, while Demeter is regarded as the one who taught agriculture to mortals, among others.

  • An excellent answer! Thank you very much for your insight, much appreciated.
    – Koios
    Jul 3, 2023 at 20:20

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