I'm looking into fabulous creatures and demons specifically in Sumerian texts, or in Akkadian texts but where the creature/demon still had a Sumerian origin. I can't seem to find a complete list, if it even exists, and many which are listed in various places on the internet are extremely suspect. What I have so far:

  • Anzu bird
  • Asag
  • Bull of Heaven
  • Galla (same as Galatura?)
  • Humbaba
  • Kurgara
  • Namtar

What else is out there from the Sumerian side? Any fabulous creatures at all would be helpful, but I hope to find specifically more demons and monsters.

1 Answer 1


A couple come to mind, though, of course, I make no claim I can provide anything like a complete list:

F.A.M. Wiggerman's Mesopotamian Protective Spirits: The Ritual Texts, particularly Section VII "Inventory of Monsters, Brief Discussions" (starting page 143).

Subsection C there gives histories of the following monsters, who are part of the army of Tiamat in the Enuma Elish (which is also discussed here in some depth):

-Lahmu : "the Hairy One"
-Bašmu : "Venomous Snake", "Birth Goddess Snake"
-Mušḫuššu : "Furious Snake", "Aweful Snake"
-Ugallu : "Big-Weather Beast", "Big Day"
-Uridimmu : "Mad Lion"
-Kusarikku : "Bison", "Bison(-bull)"
-Girtablullû : "Scorpion-Man"
-Urmahlullû : "Lion-Man"
-Kulullû : "Fish-Man"
-Suhurmasu : "Carp-Goat"

  • If I'm not mistaken, all of these are Semitic creatures and demons, not specifically Sumerian ones. I washoping for strictly Sumerians creatures, though I do understand that in later times there was considerable overlap.
    – cmw
    Commented Sep 22, 2015 at 4:19
  • @C.M.Weimer - Fair enough, I was of the belief that the Enuma Elish was believed to be based on Sumerian traditions, but it appears that recent consensus is against it, and I'm really not sure Lamashtu and Pazuzu have a Sumerian parallel. I suppose that really only leaves Lilitu and Lamassu, which I believe are of reasonably clear sumerian origin.
    – femtoRgon
    Commented Sep 22, 2015 at 15:26

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