An interesting perspective is given in the Theoi Project webpage Athena, where the goddess was one of a purely ethical divine character and not of one particular naturally manifested physical power. Specifically, she was considered as a protector of the state in a 'holistic' manner, as explained by the website as:
her power and wisdom appear in her being the protectress and preserver of the state and of social institutions.
Essentially, she preserves the 'state's prosperity and strength within, as well its defense from those from the outside. The website authors summarise that:
As Athena promoted the internal prosperity of the state, by encouraging agriculture and industry, and by maintaining law and order in all public transactions, so also she protected the state from outward enemies, and thus assumes the character of a warlike divinity, though in a very different sense from Ares, Eris, or Enyo.
Additionally, Athena is also connected with the invention of the tools and the types of work that men and women did, specifically
in short Athena and Hephaestus were the great patrons both of the useful and elegant arts.