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Are there any gods or other mythological beings which take on the form of insects?

A partial resemblance (like Khepri) would count as a yes for me, but a god which is simply associated with insects wouldn't.

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In Greek mythology, there's Tithonus, mortal lover of Eos, who became a cicada (or a cricket):

In the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, the goddess Aphrodite retells the legend of how Eos, the goddess of the dawn, requested Zeus to let her lover Tithonus live forever as an immortal. Zeus granted her request, but, because Eos forgot to ask him to also make Tithonus ageless, Tithonus never died, but he did grow old. Eventually, he became so tiny and shriveled that he turned into the first cicada.

In the same Wikipedia page, Insects in mythology, there's also this:

The Homeric Hymn to Apollo acknowledges that Apollo's gift of prophecy first came to him from three bee maidens, usually but doubtfully identified with the Thriae, a trinity of pre-Hellenic Aegean bee goddesses. A series of identical embossed gold plaques were recovered at Camiros in Rhodes; they date from the archaic period of Greek art in the seventh century, but the winged bee goddesses they depict must be far older.

PS: I failed to see the "arthropod" in the question title. In that case, one (very) obvious example to add is Arachne.

Wikipedia has also categories about mythological spiders and mythological arthropods. In this last one, for example, there's the scorpion men.

Scorpion men are featured in several Akkadian language myths, including the Enûma Elish and the Babylonian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh. They were also known as aqrabuamelu or girtablilu. The Scorpion Men are described to have the head, torso, and arms of a man and the body of a scorpion.

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Loki could take on the form of a (sting)fly.

He does this in the story in Snorri's Skáldskaparmál that tells of how the Gods got some of their most prized possessions: after having made a bet with the dwarf Sindri and his brother Brokkr that they could not produce more wondrous items than he had already obtained, he took the form of a stingfly to disturb their smithing. His interfering explains why the shaft of Mjölnir is shorter than it should have been.

Further, in Sörla þáttr, he took the form of a fly to be able to sneak into Freya's chambers at night and steal her necklace, Brisingamen. Since she slept with it on, and he could not reach the clasp, he turned into a flea and bit her, so she would turn in her sleep.

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