A couple come to mind, though, of course, I make no claim I can provide anything like a complete list:
Tiamat - Primodial ocean goddess, Antagonist to Marduk in the Enuma Elish.
Lilitu / Lillith - Appears notably in the Huluppu Tree (as well as appearing in Hebrew texts, of course)
Lamassu - Human head, animal body and wings. Fairly common in art.
Scurlock/Andersen in their Diagnoses in Assyrian and Babylonian Medicine (University of Illinois Press, 2005) call pašittu a type of disease:
The Akkadian term for cholecystitis appears to have been pašittu. Pašittu is lexically equated with bile, and the Sumerogram (ZU.MUS.I.KU.E) indicates an associated severe pain.
They cite the following texts: