8

This is a complex question, and entire books have been written on it. The modern conception of Satan is a mixture of qualities arising from paganism (horns, etc.) but the conception of Satan as evil in the Christian sense almost certainly arises from Zoroastrianism in the form of Ahriman. To unpack this, consider Hades Diis. Lord of the underworld, yes. ...


8

Enkidu, companion of Gilgamesh was definitely raised outside of human society Essentially, he is a wild man that is tricked into losing his kinship with the wild beasts by laying with a woman. Enkidu would likely be the oldest, as Gilgamesh is one of the oldest surviving mythical texts.


7

It depends what you mean by "demi-god". They are of somewhat divine origin, by most understandings of "sons of God" (ancient Hebrew sources identify them with angels of some description). They were men of great renown. That much is in common with the Greek tradition of heroes of divine heritage. However, the Greek heroes (not all of whom were demi-gods in ...


6

One narrative that famously juxtaposes the divine with the scatological or grotesque is the Old Irish Cath Maige Tuired, the text follows the conflict between the Tuatha Dé (God tribe) and the Fomorians in Ireland. One of the key characters is An Dagda (in text this is given to mean The Good-God), who at about halfway through the text it is decided that An ...


6

As @Codosaur Pointed out, Satan is a character that rises up against the supreme deity of the mythology. I would add that in the Christian rligion, he comes by many names I'll start a list here and we'll try to explain some of their signification: Lord of the underworld / Lord of Hell / Lord of this World: Satan is supposed to rule over hell, so the ...


6

Big Ajax (Telemon) kills himself over grief for his diminished honor after Odysseus cheats him out of Achilles' armor and Athena drives him mad to keep him from murdering everyone. Sophocles wrote a play about it. The idea here is that one's honor is more important than one's life, which is reflected in Achilles' choice to die at Troy rather than not go ...


6

One of the purposes, in regard to Greek mythology, is elevating human dignity, which leads to humanism. In the Trojan war, the gods are portrayed as petty and squabbling, where Hector, in particular, is portrayed as selfless and honorable. The poem begins by invoking the goddess "Sing, Goddess of the..." but is focused on the rage of Achilles, not the ...


5

Heracles is one of the most famous characters in Greek Mythology who transcended from being a demigod to a god. Throughout his life, Heracles faced constant trials, many of them concocted by Hera due to her hatred at Zeus' interactions with Heracles' mother (a mortal woman). The story of Heracles' death begins with a centaur who attempted to kidnap Heracles'...


5

There are many answers, but here I'll focus on one of the most famous, the Pietà. This concept underlies the Jesus story and Christian thought in general, reflecting both divine mercy, and the mercy of humans for other humans. Yeats wrote: In pity for man's darkening thought He walked the room and issued thence In Galilean turbulence; The ...


5

Jörmungandr and Apep 1-2 They Both try to/or destroy creation where not worshipped but feared. Are great(huge) serpents.(although in some stories Apep is portrayed as a crocodile) Both are believed to be the reason for earthquakes. Both are considered evil An added plus is that really big serpents will look great in a cardgame! I found another one in the ...


4

Queen Dido The legendary Carthaginian Queen Dido kills herself in despair after her lover Aeneas, son of Aphrodite, abandons her. Tristan & Isolde Joseph Campbell wrote about these two, emphasizing the unification of divine and romantic love (he calls it "Roma" vs. "Amor", Roma referencing the seat of the Catholic church in Rome.) The legend ...


4

Oedipus stabs out his own eyes with the brooches from his mother's dress when he finds her hanging dead by her own hand. There we beheld the woman hanging by the neck in a twisted noose of swinging cords. And when Oedipus saw her, with a dread deep cry he released the halter by which she hung. And when the hapless woman was stretched out on the ground, ...


4

In Greek mythology Atalanta the virgin huntress was abandoned by her father in the wild and was cared for by a bear: Lycurgus had sons, Ancaeus, Epochus, Amphidamas, and Iasus, by Cleophyle or Eurynome. And Amphidamas had a son Melanion and a daughter Antimache, whom Eurystheus married. And Iasus had a daughter Atalanta by Clymene, daughter of Minyas. ...


4

The Wikipedia article for Theseus ends its introduction with this: As the subject of myth, the existence of Theseus as a real person has not been proven, but scholars believe that he may have been alive during the Late Bronze Age possibly as a king in the 8th or 9th century BC. This assertion is based on Classical Mythology Tenth Edition. Quoting ...


4

You can trace this back to either the Mesopotamian Gilgamesh epic, or ancient Egyptian constellations, mutated during the Greek rule of Egypt of the Ptolemaic dynasties. Much has been written on the first, but only recently the latter has been studied in greater detail, and it actually has links with the Gilgamesh epic, so I will elaborate on the latter ...


3

If memory serves, Mikhail Bakunin was particularly fond of the story of Prometheus, the Titan of forethought. Prometheus defied the Olympians (the ruling class), stole fire from Zeus (the king) and gifted it to humanity. It does not get any more anti-authority than that! Here's one version of the myth, from Hesiod's Works and Days: For the gods keep ...


3

I would start with the eye of the Horus and the eye of Odin, have you considered this link? Both of them are said to have the sun and moon as their eyes. Both lost the eyes in some moment. I believe that Loki and Set are not totally alike, but they are the "necessary evil" that comes to cause disruption in the world in both cultures. Lewis Hyde has written ...


3

In accordance with both Jewish and Christian theology, there is only 1 God - Yahweh - who is the creator of everything: angels, people, animals, the universe, earth, etc. Worship of anything or anyone besides Yahweh was (and is) prohibited because only Yahweh has and deserves the rank of being divine. Keep these things in mind. A demigod is, according to ...


3

I think "background" is going to exclude many mythologies with creatures having more or less the same role, if we include the notion of "rising up against the supreme deity of the mythology". Satan after all literally means "adversary" and this background is exclusive to Judeo-Christian mythology. If we focus on role, probably the oldest example would be ...


3

For the sake of future readers, here's some info taken from my answer to this Latin.SE question; I'm not at all sure I've found the first syncretism, and interpretatio graeca definitely happened earlier too (since Herodotus is quick to connect Greek and Egyptian gods), but this is the oldest written source I've found that concerns specifically Roman deities: ...


3

Buddhism and Hinduism believe in many lives, and do have heavens and hells. Naraka (a Hindu hell) Vaikuntha (a Hindu heaven) At a high level, a distinction between these two religions is that in Buddhism, everything is impermanent and therefore illusory (including heaven and hell), as opposed to the Hindu conception of everything as cyclic and eternal. ...


3

The dates mentioned on Wikipedia's article on the subject concerning the historical basis of floods in myths (in chronological order): 6600 BC It has been postulated that the deluge myth in North America may be based on a sudden rise in sea levels caused by the rapid draining of prehistoric Lake Agassiz at the end of the last Ice Age, about 8,400 years ...


3

There are two that you can download from Project Gutenberg for free. Armenian Legends And Poems by Z. C. Boyajian (2017) Armenian Legends And Festivals by L. A. Boettiger (2011)


2

There is the Lore of the Yaksha & Yakshini. As well as Kinnara & Kinnari. Also Refer to a Tangential Piece of mine if you so feel. The Mythos of 'Yakshi'


2

The Mojave creator Matevilye (alt. Matavilya, Mutavilya) died from an illness caused by his daughter eating his excrement: According to the Mohave, the first were the sky, a man, and the earth, a woman. These met far in the west, and from them were born, first Matevilye, and after him his daughter the frog, Mastamho who is usually called his younger ...


2

An anarchist message can be found in Antigone's refusal to abide by King Creon's decree to leave her brother unburied, as dramatized in the play "Seven Against Thebes" by Aeschylus. Interestingly, the first known use of the word "anarchy" in a political context is in line 1035 of the play.


2

The short answer is it's hard to know. I'd personally think that the end of Ragnarok, where one man and one woman survive and repopulate the earth, and Heimdall (called The White God in Gylfaginning), becomes the supreme god, mostly because that seems awfully familiar and Christian. Loki's role? Seems rather demonic given he usually acts as a balancer, chaos-...


2

My answer covers personifications and deities of wisdom and ignorance from Hindu or Hinduism mythology point of view. In Hinduism mythology, there are various gods/goddesses which are associated with wisdom, learning and knowledge etc. , most prominently Hindu god Ganesha, goddess Saraswati, goddesses Gayatri etc. and lot's of stories about these deities of ...


1

Strange question. That is far more language than a modern man or anyone ever talked! I can't give texts to all of that, but: Coptic: You have the fairly excellent Coptic scriptorium, you probably don't need any other resource that this one, both huge and complete. You will need a little bit of copy paste, considering you have the text in coptic, a ...


1

...the northern constellations circle the North star, therefore it is the hub, which is to say the seat of the axle/axis. So, for those cultures that envisage this hypothetical pillar as a tree, the bear and the dragon circle this tree most closely...


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