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12

OK, so there are a couple of misconceptions here. First, as Codosaur has already pointed out, Cronus and Chronos aren't necessarily the same being -- they just have similar names. On the other hand, Cronus and Chronos were confused with each other even in antiquity. In fact the Roman god Saturn, who the Romans associated with the Greek god Cronus, was ...


10

Only Medusa. Medusa was the only mortal of the three sisters, and the only beautiful one. Poseidon raped her in one of Athena's temples. The other gods demanded that Medusa be punished for "defiling" the temple (never mind punishing Poseidon for raping her). Athena changed her into a hideous creature with snakes for hair — interpretations vary on whether ...


9

Argos (and his brother Pelasgos) According to Apollodorus, Hyginus, and Diodorus Siculus, the first mortal consort of Zeus was a princess named Niobe, daughter of Phoroneus. (This Niobe is not to be confused with the more famous tragic one who was the daughter of the Lydian king Tantalos [Tantalus]. The Lydian Niobe lived about eight generations after the ...


8

It's not clear from your picture, but the face is most probably a Gorgoneion, a recurring element of Athena's iconography: In Ancient Greece, the Gorgoneion (Greek: Γοργόνειον) was a special apotropaic amulet showing the Gorgon head, used most famously by the Olympian deities Athena and Zeus: both are said to have worn the gorgoneion as a protective ...


8

Preface: This subject is complicated by changing social standards. Forced marriage has been routinely practiced around the world into the contemporary era, depending on the society. (This is a major theme of Game of Thrones, as is the condition of women in pre-modern societies in general.) The Rape of the Sabine Women can provide some context. I see three ...


8

Hephaestus’s ugly appearance and lameness is taken by some to represent peripheral neuropathy and skin cancer resulting from arsenicosis caused by arsenic exposure from metalworking. Bronze age smiths added arsenic to copper to produce harder arsenical bronze, especially during periods of tin scarcity. Many Bronze Age smiths would have suffered from chronic ...


8

The death of Achilles is related in Aethiopis by Arctinus of Miletus in the 8th Century BCE. This is one of the poems the Ancient Greeks collected into an "Epic Cycle" centered around the events of the Trojan War. Like most of the Epic Cycle except Iliad and Odyssey, Aethiopis is mostly lost, except for five lines and second-century CE summary (in Greek) by ...


7

Cronus's children were gods, and therefore immortal. Until the "Pan is dead" tale, which was only related in the first century AD, no death of a deity is related in Greek mythology. Gods and Titans alike may be imprisoned or transformed, but not killed. This is unlike some other mythologies: whereas Osiris, Tammuz, or Baldur are clearly described as dead, ...


7

Going by the commonest references in Ancient Greek literature and the closest associations in Ancient Greek religion, the best candidate for this particular hymn's addressee would appear to be Rhea, but specifically as filtered through her identification with the ambiguous Phrygian deity Kybele [Cybele] (or a perhaps pre-Hellenic goddess who would become ...


6

There are dozens of Greek first names still in use today.. Many of them don't sound so strange to us because we're familiar with them. It's usually only the names that are not commonly given to people nowadays or the ones that stem from Greek literature or mythology that make us wonder. At the root of the difference in nomenclature in modern Anglo-Saxon ...


6

The point is that Kronus didn't bother to look at the child, he simply swallowed whatever was presented to him. Hence why he was fooled by a rock.


6

Chronos and Cronus have often been confused in Greek Mythology. The first is the personification of time in pre-Socratic philosophy and later literature. The second is the Titan deity who was defeated by his son Zeus.


6

A Sphinx Replacement? Book 7 of Ovid's Metamorphoses strongly implies that the attacks of the Teumessian Fox were revenge for the death of another monster, the Sphinx, which Thebes had been rid of thanks to Oidipous [Oedipus], who won the throne of Thebes by accomplishing this feat. Ovid says that the Teumessian Fox descended upon Thebes immediately after ...


6

No. Both Hades and Poseidon, Zeus's brothers, prefer their own domains to Olympus. Hades lives in the underworld and Poseidon in the sea, near Euboea. Hephaestus, another one of the dodekatheon, lived on Lemnos island after Hera ejected him from Olympus. In Thracian mythology, Ares prefered Mount Haimos in Thrace to Olympus. Minor gods could also live ...


6

One of the purposes, in regard to Greek mythology, is elevating human dignity, which leads to humanism. In the Trojan war, the gods are portrayed as petty and squabbling, where Hector, in particular, is portrayed as selfless and honorable. The poem begins by invoking the goddess "Sing, Goddess of the..." but is focused on the rage of Achilles, not the ...


6

I can't find a classical source for this, but from what I understand it's related to the myth of the founding of Athens and the competition Poseidon had with Athena over who would be the city's patron. They each created various things and the citizens of Athens ended up choosing Athena for her olive tree. In some versions Poseidon gave them a spring of water ...


6

This sounds like Menalaus' encounter with Proteus. Menelaus narrates it in Homer's Odyssey (book 4). Proteus' daughter advises Menelaus to go grab Proteus and not let go even though he changes his appearance. Menelaus goes as he was advised, and seizes him, and Proteus changes into many forms, but Menelaus and his men don't let go, and in the end he is ...


6

Hector's most famous kill is Patroclus, the second-in-command of Achilles over the Myrmidon forces on the Greek side of the Trojan War. Because of how close Patroclus was to Achilles, to whom he was related and had known since they were young, this led inevitably to Hector's death by the hand of Achilles, who was sore with vengefulness over his friend's ...


5

The story of Perses deposing Aeëtes and getting killed by Medea can be found in Apollodorus 1.9.28: Medea came to Athens, and being there married to Aegeus bore him a son Medus. Afterwards, however, plotting against Theseus, she was driven a fugitive from Athens with her son. But he conquered many barbarians and called the whole country under him Media, ...


5

I'm going to propose: Minos, King of Crete The reason is that he is a contemporary of Theseus' father, King Aegeus, and Theseus was in the first generation of heroes, which includes Herakles, who predate the heroes of the Trojan war. Minos, along with Rhadamanthus and Sarpedon, is a child of Europa, a Phoenician princess and great, great granddaughter of ...


5

The quote within the quote in your Question is Book 5, Lines 255-258 of Ovid's Fasti. The full story runs from Line 229 through Line 260 of the same book, making up a medium-sized paragraph. (James George Frazer's translation thereof, which might make for less obscure reading than the one in the Kersey Graves book, can be found on The Theoi Project. A.S. ...


5

All three. None of the oldest sources seem to confirm or deny, since Medousa's sisters don't really do much in the most famous myths. But some later authors made it explicit. From Nonnus's Dionysiaca, from the fourth or fifth century CE. ἢ Περσέος εἶχες ἀγῶνα; ἢ Σθεννοῦς ἴδες ὄμμα λιθώπιδος ἠὲ καὶ αὐτῆς δύσμαχον Εὐρυάλης μυκώμενον ἀνθερεῶνα; ...


5

The Trojan War is the continuation of that duel. The idea of a duel between individuals, with no collective consequences, reappears sometimes in history during times of rugged individualism: in the late chivalric Middle Ages, the Enlightenment, among Vikings, in the Wild West, etc. But apart from these exceptions, the feud, involving clan honor and clan ...


5

A long time ago, I read where the waning and waxing of the moonlight is from the collection of dead souls. When the moon is completely dark/full of souls, they begin to be ferried away and the Light gradually reappears. Eerie, and I still think of it from time to time when noticing the moon phases. Just found something akin to the above, tho they think the ...


5

According to Apollonius Rhodius' Argonautica 2.966ff, Heracles, while performing his ninth task, which required him to obtain Hippolyta's girdle, captured "Melanippe, daughter of Ares," and as a trade, "Hippolyte gave him her glistening girdle as her sister's ransom," whereupon Heracles let Melanippe go free, unharmed. The Amazon leader with whom Antiope ...


4

The translation given by DukeZhou is going for good, idiomatic English—but that means literal accuracy has to be sacrificed sometimes. Here's what Ovid wrote: esse quoque in fatis reminiscitur, adfore tempus, quo mare, quo tellus correptaque regia caeli ardeat et mundi moles obsessa laboret. A very literal translation: Also, he remembered that ...


4

Absolutely! The most famous one is the necromancer Erictho, who originated in Lucan's epic Pharsalia (about the civil war between Caesar and Pompey). In book five, Appius Claudius goes to the oracle at Delphi hoping to find out how the war will end; Apollo possesses the oracle's body and gives a prediction through her. In book six, on the other hand, ...


4

Different mythologies being consolidated, mainly. Originally—by which I mean as far back as we have evidence to speculate—Poseidon seems to have been married to the earth-deity Dā. The oldest attested form of his name is Maecenean po-te-da-on, presumably from potei Dāōn, "husband of Dā"; this would make him the son-in-law of Demeter (Dā-mātēr, "Dā's mother")...


4

I see the stages of spiritual awakening reflected in each labor: Stage I: Labor of Sorting Seeds - Beginning. Journey of intentionally creating internal order through disciplined action with an aim. We easily imagine the fast movement of the ants working at their aim without distraction and with great speed. It mesmerizes. They can also carry 1000 times ...


4

Dudo appears to have been a fairly confused chap. He also seemed to confuse "Danish" and "Dacian". However, as has been noted in the comments, it a reasonably common theme in national mythologies to suppose some honourable (and no longer extant) origin for a people. Troy has been popular, with the most well known example being the Romans through the Aeneid, ...


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