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The death of Achilles is related in Aethiopis by Arctinus of Miletus in the 8th Century BCE. This is one of the poems the Ancient Greeks collected into an "Epic Cycle" centered around the events of the Trojan War. Like most of the Epic Cycle except Iliad and Odyssey, Aethiopis is mostly lost, except for five lines and second-century CE summary (in Greek) by ...


6

Hector's most famous kill is Patroclus, the second-in-command of Achilles over the Myrmidon forces on the Greek side of the Trojan War. Because of how close Patroclus was to Achilles, to whom he was related and had known since they were young, this led inevitably to Hector's death by the hand of Achilles, who was sore with vengefulness over his friend's ...


6

From Plato's Gorgias, page 524: οὗτοι οὖν ἐπειδὰν τελευτήσωσι, δικάσουσιν ἐν τῷ λειμῶνι, ἐν τῇ τριόδῳ ἐξ ἧς φέρετον τὼ ὁδώ, ἡ μὲν εἰς μακάρων νήσους, ἡ δ᾽ εἰς Τάρταρον. καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἐκ τῆς Ἀσίας Ῥαδάμανθυς κρινεῖ, τοὺς δὲ ἐκ τῆς Εὐρώπης Αἰακός: Μίνῳ δὲ πρεσβεῖα δώσω ἐπιδιακρίνειν, ἐὰν ἀπορῆτόν τι τὼ ἑτέρω, ἵνα ὡς δικαιοτάτη ἡ κρίσις ᾖ περὶ τῆς ...


5

According to Apollonius Rhodius' Argonautica 2.966ff, Heracles, while performing his ninth task, which required him to obtain Hippolyta's girdle, captured "Melanippe, daughter of Ares," and as a trade, "Hippolyte gave him her glistening girdle as her sister's ransom," whereupon Heracles let Melanippe go free, unharmed. The Amazon leader with whom Antiope ...


5

Nothing happened to him. He was not replaced by another sea deity because he was the Sea itself: the Mediterranean and Black Seas in particular were supposed to be his body, in the same way that the Earth was the body of the goddess Gaia, the Sky was the body of Ouranos [Uranus], and the Underworld Abyss was the body of Tartaros [Tartarus]. When the ...


5

The ancient Greek writer and geographer Pausanias recorded a variant of the well know story of Narcissus falling in love with himself, in which Narcissus falls in love with his twin sister rather than himself. [9.31.8] There is another story about Narcissus, less popular indeed than the other, but not without some support. It is said that Narcissus had a ...


4

Herakles' Opponent(s) I have not found any ancient references to the idea that Herakles [Heracles] invented pankration [pancratium]. Pausanias' Description of Greece 5.8.4, however, does mention that during Herakles' participation in the Olympic Games, the hero is said to have "won victories at wrestling and the pankration." The Roman writer Hyginus seems ...


4

The scholiast to Apollonius of Rhodes gives the story with Orion, but nothing about Artemis. The scholiast to Pindar Nemean 2.17-18 also gives the story with Orion (along with a lot of non-mythological content). I don't see in either one of them a reference to a connection with Artemis. However, there are sources for this in the scholia, which you have ...


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As far as I know (having been searching for a long time), there's no published translation (English or otherwise) of any complete set of Greek scholia. But there are possible workarounds. Commentaries often quote or paraphrase scholia, so you might start by looking at a commentary on the quoted passage. For example, Perseus has a digitized copy of a ...


4

The description of Acheron and Styx in Aeneid 6 appears to be fairly clearly based on the somewhat ambiguous Underworld structure supplied by Circe in Homer's Odyssey 10. Other mythography subsequent to Homer likewise appears to take Circe at her word as far as the placement of these chthonic features is concerned. E.g. Plato's interpretation, given in ...


4

Welcome! This is a good question, and the short answer is that the Greeks used both names, depending on the context. "Hades" is the older name associated with this deity. Over time, of course, that word also came to be associated with the realm of the underworld itself1. (In classical Greek, unlike English, the grammar makes it clear whether you're ...


4

In the book Odyssey, it's said that ambrosia was carried to Olympus by doves [1]: Here not even a bird may pass, no, not even the timid doves that bring ambrosia to Father Jove, but the sheer rock always carries off one of them, and Father Jove has to send another to make up their number Also, Demeter was considered the goddess of crops and ...


4

Hebe Hebe was the cup-bearer and poured ambrosia and nectar of the gods. You might know her better as the wife of Hercules, who upon his ascension to Mount Olympus "got" her from his enemy and her mother Hera as reconciliation. "Now the gods at the side of Zeus were sitting in council over the golden floor, and among them the goddess Hebe (Youth) poured ...


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According to Anacreon, white roses appeared in the foam of the sea around the shell of Aphrodite's birth. The birth account of Aphrodite is first recorded in Hesod's Theogony. We all know this account from classic paintings, but what is perhaps less known is that Aphrodite was not the only one born from the casting of Ouranos' genitals in the sea by his son, ...


3

"Decifra-me ou te devoro" uses wording that cannot be very old and also has a distinct literary ring. "Decipher" originally meant being able to read/understand the arabic numerals, "cifres", which was enlarged into an ability to read unshapely hand-writig.The point it is that it relates to text which is not the case of the original story about solving a ...


3

BASICS The most prevalent version of his name in literature across time thus far is Ephialtes. There seems to be a lost myth in which he does indeed get into a fight with and is defeated by a hero, none other than Herakles [Hercules] himself. In the clearest reference to this story, the daimon's name is Epiales; and apparently after the confrontation, ...


3

Here's a link to the Aeschylus mention in Suppliant Women. Unfortunately, it's a single line with little detail. (In the Greek text, Epiales aka "Dark Dream", is ὄναρ μέλαν".) Here is a passage from Apollodorus that describes Ephialtes, a leader of the giants in the Gigantomachy, vanquised at the hands of Apollo and Heracles: "But in the battle ...


3

While I agree with much of what has been written already, I think there is one obvious aspect that has not been directly expressed. There's a lot of rape in Greek myth because rape happened a lot. The ancient Greeks were engaged in an unusually high amount of warfare, which breeds the kind of anarchy where rape is rampant. Ancient Greeks were possibly more ...


3

They weren't just insane followers, they were supposedly nurses too. They were mad because of alcohols and drugs, and showed the "dark" side of the party. Sometimes, drinking too much cause violence, sometimes violence cause death. "Real" followers of Dyonisos tried to emulate their madness with mushrooms and other psychotropes. For some reason, this is ...


3

As far as the sun is concerned, the answer is: Yes... but also No. For somewhat different reasons, this gets very complicated and even confused particularly with regard to three of the classical seven planets in question, namely the sun, the moon, and Venus. Sun and Moon In ancient Greco-Roman cosmology, as celestial objects themselves, the sun and the ...


3

To answer your first question yes, Hermes was (among other things) a god of thievery. An excerpt from the Hermes Theoi page HERMES was the Olympian god of herds and flocks, travellers and hospitality, roads and trade, thievery and cunning, heralds and diplomacy, language and writing, athletic contests and gymnasiums, astronomy and astrology. He was the ...


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You can't categorize the Olympians with DC/Marvel labels. The Ancient Greeks didn't even think of their gods as we currently think of that concept. Greek gods were regarded much more like the deep, layered human characters of Bronte or Wolf. That's why virtually all Olympian myths are tragedies.


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From the west. Note that Boreaus, the North Wind, brought cold winter air from the north.


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Yes, it is possible, and has been done. The GML Compilation I would say the handiest resource available for this online is the "Mythical Chronology Chart" page on Carlos Parada's website the Greek Mythology Link (GML). As further explained on the afore-linked page (q.v.), The chart does not establish precise historical dates, but shows the ...


3

Mediaeval compilations referencing older, potentially ancient works do mention the story. It is narrated in Ch. II of the "Διηγηματα" section of the "Appendix: Narrationum," on p. 359 of Anton Westermann's 1843 book Mythographoi: Scriptores poeticae historiae graeci. Cited as the source here is the Progymnasmata 2, by Aphthonius of ...


2

The term was explained by ancient writers as "song for [the prize of] a goat" or "song for [the sacrifice of] a goat". Walter Burkert observed in Savage Energies: Lessons of Myth and Ritual in Ancient Greece that these were hard to disentangle, because the song competition would mean competing for the honor of being given the goat that would be offered as ...


2

In ancient Greece they did have some specific dog breeds. There is the Laconian dog breed. They were swift and often used for hunting. Then there is the Molossian dog, which is very similar in appearance to bull dogs, as Cerberus is commonly portrayed. These dogs are big and buff and make good guard dogs, so they might be a good candidate for guardian of the ...


2

We don't really know... although I have a theory. Several ancient sources mention this nymph Thaleia (or Thalia) but only one, Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Palikê, says anything about her parentage. One of the dozens of the lost works of the playwright Aeschylus is mentioned by other authors using so many different versions of its title that there is a ...


2

One More Wife To complicate the issue yet a little bit further, if we take Plato's dialogue Kritias into account, Poseidon actually has three wives, not just two. According to the description of the foundation of Atlantis in Kritias, Poseidon was married to a certain Kleïto [Cleïto] who bore him five sets of twin sons who ruled the land, which was named ...


2

I think it reasonable to conclude that indeed Styx could swear by her own name. The basic criterion making one eligible to swear this oath is for the swearer to be one of the gods, which she definitely is. The Ceremony Hesiod's Theogony suggests that she would also be required to participate in a libation ceremony in which she pours her own water out as ...


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