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17

I have asked this question on the English Wikipedia Reference Desk a few months ago. This answer contains a copy of the answers volunteered there. Livius Andronicus (c. 284 – c. 204 BC) was possibly the first who translated the Odyssey into Latin, but his translation has not survived. There have been many Latin translations of Homer over the centuries, but ...


12

Odysseus was interested in marrying Helen, but he knew he wasn't a favourite amongst the suitors, and had anticipated that Helen would pick Menelaus, if given the choice: And from Ithaca the sacred might of Odysseus, Laertes son, who knew many-fashioned wiles, sought her to wife. He never sent gifts for the sake of the neat-ankled maid, for he knew in his ...


11

Time and chronology tend to be fairly loose in Greek mythology, particularly as there are usually multiple authors treating the same subjects. Regardless, Achilles is presumed to be a youth at the start of the war. In this famous vase painting, he is depicted as beardless: You can read more about this vase at the Perseus site at Tufts. You may recall that ...


7

Bowing at the knees in Greek is an act called proskynesis. It wasn't mandatory, but it did occur. It was more often associated with the Persians, as they would perform proskynesis to those nobler than they (which meant that everyone bowed to the Persian king). Xenophon contrasts this with the Greek practice of only kneeling toward the gods: οὐδένα γὰρ ...


7

Is it possible, rather, to view Achilles as a more dynamic, developing, three-dimensional character? That is, you describe an either/or motivational paradigm, but mightn't it better be described as both/and? Achilles starts from a place of anger (as does Homer: menin is given pride of place, after all), but in the end, especially after meeting Priam, ...


7

Achilles doesn't actually want to escape his fate. Turning away from the war at its outset is a response to Agamemnon's insult over Briseis. (The Iliad actually begins with this feud, and the major tension is over whether Achilles will ultimately participate in the war.) The reason Achilles seeks his own destruction is that, in his case, his death is the ...


6

Hector's most famous kill is Patroclus, the second-in-command of Achilles over the Myrmidon forces on the Greek side of the Trojan War. Because of how close Patroclus was to Achilles, to whom he was related and had known since they were young, this led inevitably to Hector's death by the hand of Achilles, who was sore with vengefulness over his friend's ...


6

You must be referring to the passage in book eight, near verse 75. The passage is rendered as follows in Butler’s translation: “The company then laid their hands upon the good things that were before them, but as soon as they had had enough to eat and drink, the muse inspired Demodocus to sing the feats of heroes, and more especially a matter that was then ...


5

According to mythology and history Diomedes Married many times. Although we have no record of him divorcing or widowing and given that at the time polygamy wasn't officially allowed (one wife, many mistresses only) we can only assume that from between one marriage and the next there was some sort of divorce or death. Quotes from Wikipedia on Diomedes' ...


5

The wording of the translation here has brought about some confusion. There is no character named "Ulysses Pidytes." Rather the sentence is describing the deaths of three men on the Trojan side as caused by three men on the Greek side, just as in the broader context of this whole first section of Book 6: Polypoetes kills Astyalus, then "Ulysses" kills ...


5

The duel in Book 22 is not the first time Achilles and Hector met on the battlefield. The story of their earlier encounter is told by Achilles himself, a little earlier in Book 9: [346] "Nay, Odysseus, together with thee and the other princes let him take thought to ward from the ships consuming fire. Verily full much hath he wrought without mine aid; ...


5

The Actual Duration of the War Towards the end of the Iliad, whose action takes place in the tenth and final year of the Trojan War, Helen says (in Line 765 of Book 24) that "this is now the twentieth year" since she departed from Lakedaimon [Lacedaemon] with Paris. "The words have puzzled the Scholiasts and commentators"1 for centuries because one might ...


5

The Trojan War is the continuation of that duel. The idea of a duel between individuals, with no collective consequences, reappears sometimes in history during times of rugged individualism: in the late chivalric Middle Ages, the Enlightenment, among Vikings, in the Wild West, etc. But apart from these exceptions, the feud, involving clan honor and clan ...


4

Greek authors in the centuries after Homer seem to have a strong preference for honorable fighting over guile. This subject is touched on in a few works that deal with the conflict between Ajax and Odysseus over who would receive Achilles' armor. Ajax was the warrior who did the actual fighting, and yet Odysseus manages to convince the judges to give him ...


4

The quoted passage informs us that Thetis did not directly intervene against Poseidon, Hera and Athena, who, indeed, yes, should have been more powerful than she. A scholion on Apollonius Rhodius' Argonautica cites Ion of Chios as saying that it was from the sea that Thetis sent Aegaeon "up to protect Zeus". Your quote says that the hundred-handed monster ...


4

Sacrifices are usually expected to be of high quality and worth, pure, strong or unusual in some way. That's why virgins tend to be sacrificed in many myths and stories or rams, bulls and stallions (i.e. strong examples of masculinity). This is easily explained as sacrificing something of great value shows the strength of your devotion or desire. A heifer ...


4

Pride and shame It is put best in book 12, 90-130: BkXXII:1-89 Priam and Hecabe fail to dissuade Hector | poetryintranslation.com Which shows his own thinking on the issue: [bolding mine] But his [Hector's] proud thoughts were troubled: ‘Alas, if I retreat through the gate, to the safety of the wall, Polydamas will not be slow to reproach me, ...


2

Apollodorus also has a Catalogue of Ships at Troy in the Epitome of the Bibliotheca (E.3.11 ff.) You may also be interested in this paper: A Programmatic Function of the Iliadic Catalogue of Ships


2

First result in a quick Google search brings Ancient History Encyclopedia article on Hera: In the Iliad, Hera mentions three cities particularly dear to her - Argos, Sparta, and Mycenae (or Mykene). Wikipedia article on Hera: "The three cities I love best," the ox-eyed Queen of Heaven declares (Iliad, book iv) "are Argos, Sparta and Mycenae of the ...


2

In Proclusean hierarchy heroes were higher ranking than mortals, purified souls, daimons, lower than angels, archangels and Deities. They received worship and commemoration alike to the Gods. In fact they were - for example - Herculean mysteries and Herculean temples, stemming from the Eleusis rites (Heracles was a succesful initiate of these mystery schools)...


2

Because Paris got his butt kicked. (Paris was only saved by the intervention of the gods.) The Trojans escaped losing the duel on a technicality--it would have been unwise to reprise that particular match up. imho, they may even have been hoping for Paris to lose, so they could return Helen and end the war. But it was pre-ordained that Troy would fall, ...


1

Since Homer wrote primarily from a male perspective, we can roughly equate a generation with the average age of marriage for males in Ancient Greece, which would be around 30 years. From the female perspective, it would be 15 years. For the wife to be fully accepted into the groom’s family, a child had to be conceived from their union as soon as possible ...


1

Another way to deduce the age of Paris is from the story that Paris killed his son Korythos when he found Korythos and Helen together. This implies that Paris was jealous because he consider Korythos old enough to be sexy. So if Korythos was at least 14 years. old, and if Paris was at least 14 years older than his son Korythos, he should have been at ...


1

Of what I have been able to find, none of the surviving ancient source material for these myths tells us when the suit for Helen at Sparta occurred in relation to the Epigoni's battle on Lake Glisas, nor when Diomedes got married to Aegialeia [Aegialia] in relation to either of these aforementioned events. And Wikipedia (per the article you are citing) ...


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