19

This idea based on the Sumerian myth known as Enki and Ninhursag (see ANET, pp. 37-41) keeps popping up, especially in popular literature and on the internet. Kramer, however, did give credence to it, as mentioned by the blogger to whom you linked (see Kramer's History Begins at Sumer, pp. 143-44). To make a long story short, the god Enki out of curiosity ...


19

Both flood myths are certainly similar that it is sound to reason that they may have similar origins or one draws from the other. The Noahide flood myth is detailed in Genesis chapters 6 through 9 of the Jewish/Christian Bible. The Ziusudra flood myth is from a single tablet often called Eridu Genesis. Similarities Both floods are brought about by divine ...


12

My name is Emerson C Velloso, and this is my archaeoastronomical contribution to Professor Michael S Heiser: The man seated is Ninurta, He's not only the God of the Farmers and Plow, He is also the God of War, related to the planet Saturn! The big star in the center is Saturn. These Akkadian representations are not realistic, but only systematic... even ...


10

The story of Lilith being Adam's first wife can be found in the fifth question of the Alphabet of ben Sirach: "The angels who are in charge of medicine: Snvi, Snsvi, and Smnglof. After God created Adam, who was alone, He said, 'It is not good for man to be alone' (Gen. 2:18). He then created a woman for Adam, from the earth, as He had created Adam himself,...


10

The Bull of heaven was sent to earth by the goddess Ishtar, to destroy Gilgamesh. But Gilgamesh thwarts the bull and kills it. There are two versions of the incidents that happened next. From Sky Script: Gilgamesh triumphed over the Bull, which was then placed in the heavens, but for his sacrilege the gods declared that the life of his best friend, ...


8

The term Anunnaki (alternate spellings: Anunnaku, Anunna, Anuna) is applied inconsistently, and the meaning appears to shift over time. It may be a term applied to a pantheon of the gods of the heavens and the underworld, or the term may be used to refer to the underworld gods only, or it may refer specifically to seven underworld judges, among others. The ...


8

Based on excavation and digs we have currently found over 560 deities. However scientist believe that there could be as many as 750. According to Bottéro's book titled: Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia A Sumerian list of around 560 deities that did this was uncovered at Fâra and Tell Abû Ṣalābīkh and dated to circa 2600 BCE, ranking five primary ...


6

That is almost a too broad question! "Historical writting" Mesopotamia started around 3100/3000 BC and vanished roughly in 549 when the Persian king Cyrius II the Great (an Achaemenid, the movie 300 include Xerxes a later one) conquered Babylon. We could consider the Achaemenid and their successors the Greek Seleucids as Mesopotamians, but I will not here. ...


6

From New Scientist Dec 24-31, 1988 (available here), an explanation of how the myth of Gilgamesh and the Bull came about due to the constellation's position. Taurus faces Orion in the sky. There is no Greek myth to explain this conflict, but the Sumerian of the Middle East saw Orion as their great hero Gilgamesh fighting a creature called the Bull of ...


6

According to The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature, my best guess from reading the translated text provided is he died of old age : ..... hero ...... has lain down and is never to rise again. ...... has lain down and is never to rise again. He of well-proportioned limbs ...... has lain down and is never to rise again. ...... has lain down and ...


6

Nope. Not even close (okay, a little bit). According to my source, the symbol is actually a star (just one). It looks kinda confusing like a solar system or a Sun. To make a Sun, you must at least meet this regulation for this type of art: The sun symbol always has either four arms plus wavy lines extending from a "ball" in the middle, or it is a ...


6

Something I never see mentioned concerning this seal and the "solar system" is why only including Pluto makes no sense. Since you can't see all the planets with the naked eye, I believe the idea is that the information of our "correct" solar system was passed down by those posing as "gods". However, here lies my issue. If you do a simple Google search for ...


6

A few possible answers: From a more secular view: Heinrich Zimmern in The Babylonian and the Hebrew Genesis (Originally in German "Biblische und babylonische Urgeschichte"), pg 44-45, wrote: "...We have found in Babylonian traditions the origin of this figure of the sage walking with God through the greater part of a life of three hundred and ...


6

The way that poem is told in your link is fancy and questionable. That is a fairly personal interpretation of the myth. In that story, Inanna doesn't have to go the underworld, but in fact does precisely the contrary, as she would have to climb upon mountain range. At the beginning she is with her brother Utu probably in a tavern: shul dUtu kash-mu-unu4-...


5

Mesopotamia is the ancient Greek name for the land between the rivers, the Euphrates and the Tigris. This geographical location is more or less modern day Iraq. The ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia was one of the earliest political powers in ancient Mesopotamia, they were since replaced by the Akkadians, who in turn were replaced with another people. The ...


5

The ranking system (which I believe to be a little off) seem to be how powerful the god was according to the people and priests. Anu is the top dog while his wife Antu is 5 below symbolizing that man was considered higher than women. As you can see the system is based on 5's with every male in the 10's and their spouses 5 below.


4

Apparently, either my research jiu-jitsu is flawed, or the first cylinder is a forgery. First of all, it does not resemble any of the Cuneiform writings that are historically known, secondarily there is no such item in the VA (I checked the items archive online and JSTOR for any notice of VA item 243). If you want to know more about Sumerians, I recommend ...


4

The Enuma Elish begins with the creation of the universe, originally an undifferentiated mass of water swirling in chaos. The waters divided into fresh and salt. The freshwater formed the god Apsu and saltwater the goddess Tiamat; from their union were born the younger gods. So she simply represents the sea, whether she is a specific sea is not mentioned. My ...


4

I find myself agreeing with Arthur George: The connection is indeed tenuous, as to Enki and Ninti being recast as Adam and Eve in the Bible, based on Professor Kramer's suggestion. I have written two books on the subject in 2010, available at Amazon.com on the internet, (1) Eden's Serpent: Its Mesopotamian Origin, and (2) The Garden of Eden Myth: Its Pre-...


3

If there is a connection, and I cannot stress this if enough, all it would indicate is that yet another biblical myth is based on older stories. It certainly doesn't in any way "prove" that science is "wrong" or that the Genesis is "right" - there are 93 other inconsistencies & contradictions in Genesis. Also, Genesis does ...


3

The ranking system was based on base 60 which was the basis of the Sumerian number system. The top god Anu or sky father was ranked 60 and his spouse Antu was ranked at 55--that pattern of husband-wife continues down the list. The other gods and goddesses were based off of that. I'm surprised that greater goddess Inanna was ranked lower. The Greeks split ...


2

Making the Descent The information I have encountered about the ancient Mesopotamian conception of the Underworld would seem to contradict the statement that the dead dwelt in any sort of "vibrant" place or if even their realm could be described as possessing "cities". It does seem to be indeed "very similar to the land of the living" in the conspicuous ...


2

Greek: Order and Justice: Zeus is the Lord of Order and Justice (Zeus Nomos "Zeus the Lawgiver", Zeus Ktêsios "Zeus Protector of Property", Zeus Horkios "Zeus Watcher of Oaths", Zeus Kosmêtês "Zeus the Orderer"). The Horai were the daughters of Zeus and Themis ("Moral Order"). Of them Dike ("Justice&...


2

Natural Order Chinese the gods are energies or principles revealing, imitating and propagating the way of Heaven (Tian 天), which is the supreme godhead manifesting in the northern culmen of the starry vault of the skies and its order. Shangti is the supreme god of law, order, justice, and creation. He is also known as Jade Emperor, Yellow Emperor, or Yu ...


2

The number seven is used in the Gilgamesh epos 40 times, so it seems more like a special connotation given to the number in general. Some examples: You have loved the lion tremendous in strength: seven pits you dug for him, and seven. You have loved the stallion magnificent in battle, and for him you decreed whip and spur and a thong, to gallop seven ...


2

I doubt that this has anything to do with Mediterranean cultures specifically. The myth of Izanagi/Izanami in Japanese Shinto is straightforwardly identical to the myth of Orpheus (only that the protagonists are gods in the Japanese myth). Also Greek myths and other myths in the region could have been influenced by other previous non-Mediterranean cultures. ...


2

Plato’s Republic includes the myth of Er, son of Armenius, in which Er avoids drinking the water of Lethe and so escapes from the underworld: All the souls […] marched on in a scorching heat to the plain of Forgetfulness [Lethe], which was a barren waste destitute of trees and verdure; and then towards evening they encamped by the river of Unmindfulness [...


2

Roman satirist Lucian of Somosata wrote of philosophers whose souls escaped from the Underworld. Names such as Plato, Socrates, even the founders of Stoicism which was popular in the second-century Roman Empire. They were angry with Lucian, who had placed himself as a character in this particular story. He had, in their eyes, insulted them and Philosophy ...


1

Norse myth does feature such a belief. See the last seven stanzas of the Vǫluspá or "Sybil's Prophecy," in the Elder or Poetic Edda, or Chapters 52-53 of the "Gylfaginning" section of the Snorra or Prose Edda (scroll forward on this last linked page to p. 82). The Eddas admittedly are not from the Mediterranean region about which you more ...


1

Yama is the god of death and justice in Hinduism which I found interesting. Forseti is another god of justice in Norse mythology. Toth is the Egyptian god of wisdom.


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