19 votes
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Was the story of Adam and Eve influenced by Sumerian Ninti and Enki?

This idea based on the Sumerian myth known as Enki and Ninhursag (see ANET, pp. 37-41) keeps popping up, especially in popular literature and on the internet. Kramer, however, did give credence to it, ...
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19 votes
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Are Noah and Ziusudra the same person?

Both flood myths are certainly similar that it is sound to reason that they may have similar origins or one draws from the other. The Noahide flood myth is detailed in Genesis chapters 6 through 9 of ...
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  • 1,682
12 votes
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What is the meaning of the star symbols appearing on seal VA 243?

My name is Emerson C Velloso, and this is my archaeoastronomical contribution to Professor Michael S Heiser: The man seated is Ninurta, He's not only the God of the Farmers and Plow, He is also the ...
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  • 136
10 votes
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Which myth says that Eve wasn't the first wife of Adam, but Lilith?

The story of Lilith being Adam's first wife can be found in the fifth question of the Alphabet of ben Sirach: "The angels who are in charge of medicine: Snvi, Snsvi, and Smnglof. After God created ...
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  • 16.7k
10 votes
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Was the constellation named after the Bull of Heaven?

The Bull of heaven was sent to earth by the goddess Ishtar, to destroy Gilgamesh. But Gilgamesh thwarts the bull and kills it. There are two versions of the incidents that happened next. From Sky ...
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  • 3,403
8 votes
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Who were the Anunnaki according to Sumerians' tales?

The term Anunnaki (alternate spellings: Anunnaku, Anunna, Anuna) is applied inconsistently, and the meaning appears to shift over time. It may be a term applied to a pantheon of the gods of the ...
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  • 9,108
8 votes
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How many Annunaki were living on Earth at the peak of their time?

Based on excavation and digs we have currently found over 560 deities. However scientist believe that there could be as many as 750. According to Bottéro's book titled: Religion in Ancient ...
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  • 2,309
6 votes
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What are the major branches of Mesopotamian mythology?

That is almost a too broad question! "Historical writting" Mesopotamia started around 3100/3000 BC and vanished roughly in 549 when the Persian king Cyrius II the Great (an Achaemenid, the movie 300 ...
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  • 3,441
6 votes

Was the constellation named after the Bull of Heaven?

From New Scientist Dec 24-31, 1988 (available here), an explanation of how the myth of Gilgamesh and the Bull came about due to the constellation's position. Taurus faces Orion in the sky. There ...
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  • 1,885
6 votes
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How did Gilgamesh die?

According to The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature, my best guess from reading the translated text provided is he died of old age : ..... hero ...... has lain down and is never to rise ...
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  • 2,281
6 votes

What is the meaning of the star symbols appearing on seal VA 243?

Nope. Not even close (okay, a little bit). According to my source, the symbol is actually a star (just one). It looks kinda confusing like a solar system or a Sun. To make a Sun, you must at least ...
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  • 2,067
6 votes

What is the meaning of the star symbols appearing on seal VA 243?

Something I never see mentioned concerning this seal and the "solar system" is why only including Pluto makes no sense. Since you can't see all the planets with the naked eye, I believe the idea is ...
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6 votes
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Significance of Enoch's age in the Hebrew Bible and identification with seventh antediluvian king/sage from Mesopotamian mythology

A few possible answers: From a more secular view: Heinrich Zimmern in The Babylonian and the Hebrew Genesis (Originally in German "Biblische und babylonische Urgeschichte"), pg 44-45, wrote: ...
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  • 908
6 votes
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Why does Inanna need a fruit to know of sex?

The way that poem is told in your link is fancy and questionable. That is a fairly personal interpretation of the myth. In that story, Inanna doesn't have to go the underworld, but in fact does ...
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  • 3,441
5 votes
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Babylonian, Sumerian or Mesopotamian

Mesopotamia is the ancient Greek name for the land between the rivers, the Euphrates and the Tigris. This geographical location is more or less modern day Iraq. The ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia ...
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  • 166
5 votes
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How did the ranking system for the Sumerian pantheon work?

The ranking system (which I believe to be a little off) seem to be how powerful the god was according to the people and priests. Anu is the top dog while his wife Antu is 5 below symbolizing that man ...
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  • 2,309
4 votes

What is the meaning of the star symbols appearing on seal VA 243?

Apparently, either my research jiu-jitsu is flawed, or the first cylinder is a forgery. First of all, it does not resemble any of the Cuneiform writings that are historically known, secondarily there ...
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4 votes

Which 'Sea' does Tiamat represent, and why did she turn into a serpent?

The Enuma Elish begins with the creation of the universe, originally an undifferentiated mass of water swirling in chaos. The waters divided into fresh and salt. The freshwater formed the god Apsu and ...
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  • 3,992
4 votes

Was the story of Adam and Eve influenced by Sumerian Ninti and Enki?

I find myself agreeing with Arthur George: The connection is indeed tenuous, as to Enki and Ninti being recast as Adam and Eve in the Bible, based on Professor Kramer's suggestion. I have written two ...
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3 votes

Was Eannatum, the real historical figure that was characterised as Adam, in the Garden of Eden narrative?

If there is a connection, and I cannot stress this if enough, all it would indicate is that yet another biblical myth is based on older stories. It certainly doesn't in any way "prove" that ...
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  • 5,286
3 votes

Who is the female figure in the Nirgul tablet?

If that is Nergal, then the female is most likely Ereshkigal/Allatu/Al-Lat. Would make sense given the snakes present, as both Nergal and Ereshkigal were children of Enki, the god whose family/clan ...
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3 votes

How did the ranking system for the Sumerian pantheon work?

The ranking system was based on base 60 which was the basis of the Sumerian number system. The top god Anu or sky father was ranked 60 and his spouse Antu was ranked at 55--that pattern of husband-...
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  • 31
2 votes
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How did the Assyrians imagine the underworld?

Making the Descent The information I have encountered about the ancient Mesopotamian conception of the Underworld would seem to contradict the statement that the dead dwelt in any sort of "vibrant" ...
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  • 9,345
2 votes
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Literature for mesopotamian seven-tiered cosmos?

The number seven is used in the Gilgamesh epos 40 times, so it seems more like a special connotation given to the number in general. Some examples: You have loved the lion tremendous in strength: ...
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  • 5,286
2 votes

Who are the deities of natural order, justice or wisdom?

Greek: Order and Justice: Zeus is the Lord of Order and Justice (Zeus Nomos "Zeus the Lawgiver", Zeus Ktêsios "Zeus Protector of Property", Zeus Horkios "Zeus Watcher of ...
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  • 166
2 votes

Who are the deities of natural order, justice or wisdom?

Natural Order Chinese the gods are energies or principles revealing, imitating and propagating the way of Heaven (Tian 天), which is the supreme godhead manifesting in the northern culmen of the ...
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  • 5,286
2 votes
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Do any Mediterranean mythologies depict souls escaping from the Underworld without the help of a living rescuer?

I doubt that this has anything to do with Mediterranean cultures specifically. The myth of Izanagi/Izanami in Japanese Shinto is straightforwardly identical to the myth of Orpheus (only that the ...
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  • 421
2 votes

Do any Mediterranean mythologies depict souls escaping from the Underworld without the help of a living rescuer?

Plato’s Republic includes the myth of Er, son of Armenius, in which Er avoids drinking the water of Lethe and so escapes from the underworld: All the souls […] marched on in a scorching heat to the ...
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2 votes

Do any Mediterranean mythologies depict souls escaping from the Underworld without the help of a living rescuer?

Roman satirist Lucian of Somosata wrote of philosophers whose souls escaped from the Underworld. Names such as Plato, Socrates, even the founders of Stoicism which was popular in the second-century ...
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1 vote

Who are the deities of natural order, justice or wisdom?

Yama is the god of death and justice in Hinduism which I found interesting. Forseti is another god of justice in Norse mythology. Toth is the Egyptian god of wisdom.
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