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15

Taking a look at a few things here. The word Yggdrasil itself firstly. "Ygg," means Death. "Drasil" is a Nordic term that has the dual meanings of both "gallows" and "horse." So Yggdrasil itself means "Deadly Gallows". A kenning for Odin was Ygg and was listed in the anonymous Skaldic Poem Óðins Nöfn. There are those that speculate that Yggdrasil gets its ...


15

Odin's eye remains at the bottom of Mimir's Well: I know where Othin's eye is hidden, Deep in the wide-famed well of Mimir; Mead from the pledge of Othin each mom Does Mimir drink: would you know yet more? Source: Völuspá, the Poetic Edda, translated by by Henry Adams Bellows The point of the tale is to convey the message that no sacrifice is ...


13

I found a different wikipedia source, for Hugin a Munin which states: Scholars have linked Odin's relation to Huginn and Muninn to shamanic practice. John Lindow relates Odin's ability to send his "thought" (Huginn) and "mind" (Muninn) to the trance-state journey of shamans. Lindow says the Grímnismál stanza where Odin worries about the return of Huginn ...


11

The meaning of those two ravens is not 100% answered, yet. One possible explanation is as follows: In the Norse shamanic tradition, Odin's ravens represent the powers of necromancy, clairvoyance and telepathy, and they were guides for the dead. This poem expresses the shaman's fear of his loss of magical powers. The Well of Remembrance by Ralph ...


11

Well, your telling is pretty distorted, but there is a story of Odin's brothers taking possession of his wife, Frigg. From the Ynglinga Saga, Chapter 3: Odin had two brothers, the one called Ve, the other Vilje, and they governed the kingdom when he was absent. It happened once when Odin had gone to a great distance, and had been so long away that ...


10

It would be hard to know definitively if this was due Christian influence on Odin's narrative b/c we don't have pre-Christian textual sources for Odin's. (i.e. This material was first recorded about 1000 years ago, long after the introduction of Christianity in Europe.) Also, there is evidence of hanging ordeals practiced by Native Americans which suggests ...


10

This is a convoluted topic, and I will start from a somewhat different angle: we are told by Snorri (and find confirmation in Völuspá) that Freya was for a while married to a figure by the name of Od, who subsequently disappeared and whom she cries tears of gold for. The name "Od" is of course related to "Odin". This has led to the obvious identification of ...


10

Also - in the Volsung Saga Odin demotes Brynhild because she disobeys his orders that a certain king should win in battle, and kills him instead. (He condemns her to marry a mortal.) If he can pick who wins, he can also choose the losers. Of course, there may have been different traditions about Odin and Freyja, just like the followers of Amun and those of ...


10

In contrast to the stanza in Gylfaginning's chapter 24, in the Hákonarmál Odin sends his valkyries to announce to king Haakon the Good that he has been granted a seat in the hall of the slain: They spoke over his grave, as heathen people are used to do, and wished him in Valhal. Eyvind Skaldaspiller composed a poem on the death of King Hakon, and on how ...


9

According to an annotation by translator Henry Adams Bellows, There exists no account of any incident in which Othin and Loki thus swore blood-brotherhood, but they were so often allied in enterprises that the idea is wholly reasonable. The common process of "mingling blood" was carried out quite literally, and the promise of -which Loki speaks is ...


9

As you say Snorri Sturluson writes this cited text in the prologue to his Prose Edda, one of our chief sources of Norse mythology. The old Scandinavian worshipers did not have a written language comparable to that of Latin of the Roman church. As such we have next to nothing about the Norse myths written by Scandinavians who were actively telling these myths ...


8

I think it's safe to say that at least the Norns knew the language of the runes from the Völuspá: There stands an ash called Yggdrasil, A mighty tree showered in white hail. From there come the dews that fall in the valleys. It stands evergreen above Urd’s Well. From there come maidens, very wise, Three from the lake that stands beneath the ...


8

Of course you can write their names in runes; runes is simply another alphabet (or rather: several alphabets). Here's what it would look like, using the Younger futhark: ᚼᚢᚴᛁᚾ Hugin ᛘᚢᚾᛁᚾ Munin (Note that while the names in Old Norse would more properly be "Huginn" and "Muninn", consonants are not duplicated in the same word, sometimes not even across ...


8

Nope. The story is known only through Hávamál, a piece of poetry from the poetic Edda, in which it takes up two stanzas. The relevant here is stanza 138: Veit ek, at ek hekk vindga meiði á nætr allar níu, geiri undaðr ok gefinn Óðni, sjalfr sjalfum mér, á þeim meiði, er manngi veit hvers af rótum renn. Hávamál, ...


7

The story of Odin's demise is recorded in the Völuspá. The relevant stanza is number 53. I found a translation here, which has some idiosyncrasies, but looks reliable: Now comes to Hlin | yet another hurt, When Othin fares | to fight with the wolf, And Beli's fair slayer | seeks out Surt, For there must fall | the joy of Frigg. "Hlin" is apparantly ...


7

The Eddic poem Hyndluljod, a dialogue between Freyja and a giantess, also mentions Od. The giantess Hyndla taunts Freyja for being over-sexed: You ran to Od,/ ever longing." I've seen their relationship rationalized as Freyja being Odin's "concubine", and it should be noted that many European rulers, even after Christianity, had wives from several ...


7

When Ragnarök is described in Völuspá (stanza 34 and on) and Snorri's Edda (Gylfaginning, 55-56), there is very little said about those that are with Hel. The closest we get is that we are told that the ship Naglfar, which somehow is important for Ragnarök, is made from the nails of dead men, but there is no further specification of whom it will carry. ...


6

Grím seems to be a variant of "Grímnir", which means "masked person". A very apt name for Odin. The closest English equivalent is "grimace", while "grim" (similar meaning in old Norse and modern English) seems to be distantly related, and only appears as a byname of Odin, "Asagrim", in a medieval Swedish ballad. (Note the difference between "Grím" and "Grim")...


6

Snorri Sturluson comments on this in the Gylfaginning (emphasis mine): 9. Then said Ganglere: Much had been done, it seemed to me, when heaven and earth were made, when sun and moon were set in their places, and when days were marked out; but whence came the people who inhabit the world? Har answered as follows: As Bor's sons went along the sea-strand, ...


6

There's also an interesting Eddic poem called Sigrdrífumál in which the valkyrie Sigrdrifa instructs the hero Sigurd in runic magic. (Sigrdrifa, Victory-Bringer, is often identified with Brynhild, so it is possible she learned the runes from Odin, her former patron. The poem does not mention this, however.)


6

The best original sources for Norse Mythology are the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda. You can also find skaldic poems on a website curated by the University of Aberdeen. As far as academic work on the subject are concerned, Mogk's Germanische Mythologie seems to discuss about Frigg and Freya from pages 369 to 373, though the text is in german (Mogk is ...


6

The problem with your question boils down to the chaotic nature of oral tradition, each region has their own stories and myths, some of which survived and others didn't. Much of what we know about Norse mythology is from Snorri Sturluson and later Christians who translated Norse works. There are vague, but strong evidence that Odin and Freya probably had a ...


5

One has to remember that the northern mythology is not based on morality (like Abrahamic religion) and interactions between gods and men (like those in Greek myths) are rare; Odins interest in the world of men is not to promote "good" behavior, it is to harvest strong warriors that will ultimately fight for him in Ragnarök. For Odin, it is better if Sigi is ...


5

If we want to be exact, Hermes is not linked directly to Odin. His Roman equivalent Mercury is. The first time such a link is made is in Tacitus' Germania, where he in the ninth book states that Mercury is the deity whom they chiefly worship, and on certain days they deem it right to sacrifice to him even with human victims. Translation: Alfred John ...


5

Odin is called "wanderer" already in some of the primary sources. Wikipedia has a very handy list of names of Odin, in which we can find at least three which has the meaning of "wanderer": Gangleri, Váfuðr and Vegtam. The two first of these appear in Grímnismál and Gylfaginning (where also, amusingly, the king Gylfi who is trying to ferret out the secrets of ...


5

No First, note that the the only detail that we learn about the wolves, Gere and Freke, in Snorri's Edda is that they are being fed by Odin when he sits at his table; they are not in any way explicitly associated with information gathering. That is solely the domain of the ravens Huginn and Muninn. This is emphasized by the names: "Gere" and "Freke" means '...


4

Stephan Grundy's Odhinn the Cult of Death, and Diana Paxson's Odin: Ecstasy, Runes, and Norse Practical Magic are both pretty good, and available on Amazon. If you've already read the Prose and Poetic Edda you'll have a good grounding in Norse myth generally, these two books will probably answer your questions.


4

This link was made first time by Tacitus (Germania). They are similar in some aspects, which can lead to confusion, like in the question of the two relates to the figure of the hermit (wanderer, lord of the ways) and luck-chance in games, for example. Other issue that could lead us to this confusion is the question of the days of the week. The word ...


4

I've always taken the answer to this to fall somewhere in between, on the one hand, the fact that Óðinn [Odin] is a trickster figure and, on the other hand, the apparent cultural expectation of the Norsemen that the most desirable way to die would be in battle in order to spend one's afterlife with Óðinn in Valhalla, training for the Ragnarök. Óðinn's ...


4

Chapter 3 of the Volsungs Saga: The tale tells that great fires were made endlong the hall, and the great tree aforesaid stood midmost thereof, withal folk say that, whenas men sat by the fires in the evening, a certain man came into the hall unknown of aspect to all men; and suchlike array he had, that over him was a spotted cloak, and he was bare-foot, ...


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