19 votes
Accepted

Was the story of Adam and Eve influenced by Sumerian Ninti and Enki?

This idea based on the Sumerian myth known as Enki and Ninhursag (see ANET, pp. 37-41) keeps popping up, especially in popular literature and on the internet. Kramer, however, did give credence to it, ...
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19 votes
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Are Noah and Ziusudra the same person?

Both flood myths are certainly similar that it is sound to reason that they may have similar origins or one draws from the other. The Noahide flood myth is detailed in Genesis chapters 6 through 9 of ...
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  • 1,682
17 votes
Accepted

How do we know that Gilgamesh was a demigod?

In general, English "demigod" refers to a person who is partially divine and partially human. Most typically, this refers to someone who has one divine and one human parent (like Hercules, or the ...
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  • 2,936
16 votes
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Why does Ishtar go to the underworld?

The Descent of Inanna (Ishtar) was unearthed from 1889 - 1900, but as far as I can tell, it wasn't really considered that well reconstructed until around the 1940s or later. Early published versions ...
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  • 9,108
14 votes
Accepted

What was the plant that Gilgamesh found after Utnapishtim's story?

The plant Gilgamesh found was not a lotus (emphasis mine) So Utanapishtim revealed to Gilgamesh another secret of the gods. Under the sea there is a wondrous plant, like a flower with thorns, that ...
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  • 3,403
12 votes
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What is the meaning of the word "me" in The Descent of Inanna

The concept of mes refers to set of ordinances or decrees as defined by the gods: In Sumerian mythology, a me (Sumerian, conventionally pronounced [mɛ]) or ñe [ŋɛ] or parşu (Akkadian, [parsˤu]) is ...
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12 votes
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Why does Inanna rejoice at her wondrous vulva?

I will admit that I'm not a scholar on the subject and mostly just speculating from what I have available to me, but maybe my speculation is better than nothing, lacking another answer. My ...
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  • 546
12 votes
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What is the meaning of the star symbols appearing on seal VA 243?

My name is Emerson C Velloso, and this is my archaeoastronomical contribution to Professor Michael S Heiser: The man seated is Ninurta, He's not only the God of the Farmers and Plow, He is also the ...
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  • 136
11 votes

How do we know that Gilgamesh was a demigod?

The definition for demigod differs from culture to culture. But the definition of demigod, which can be used here in the case of Gilgamesh would be "half-god". Gilgamesh was a Sumerian king who ...
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  • 3,403
11 votes
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Why is Gilgamesh considered to be one-third human and two-third god?

Gilgamesh was a recurring character in Mesopotamian myths/stories. The most renown of those stories is the Epic of Gilgamesh where those numbers appears. But he and his slave/servant/friend/buddy/...
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  • 3,441
10 votes
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How many Great Gods did the Sumerians have?

The source of the claim of twelve great gods comes from a book titled "The Chaldean Account of Genesis" by George Smith, written in 1876. You can see the list in Chapter 4, here: http://wisdomlib....
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  • 9,108
10 votes

Why does Inanna rejoice at her wondrous vulva?

Doing some more reading, I found that Wolkstein does provide some information on this bit of text, which expresses a similar meaning to @Dolda2000's answer: In Sumerian, the word for sheepfold, ...
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  • 9,108
10 votes

What demons/fabulous creatures did the Sumerians mention?

A couple come to mind, though, of course, I make no claim I can provide anything like a complete list: Tiamat - Primodial ocean goddess, Antagonist to Marduk in the Enuma Elish. Lilitu / Lillith - ...
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  • 9,108
10 votes
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What is the family tree of the Sumerian gods?

If what you want is a family tree "per se", you can find a good dozen of them for free on the internet via your old pal Google. Here is a very solid one: Notice this tree (as a lot you will find) is ...
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  • 3,441
10 votes
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Are there any translations of the 14 books of Enki?

These "14 tablets" are entirely fictitious, an invention of conspiracy theorist Zecharia Sitchin in his book The Lost Book of ENKI. According to Mythopedia, which calls the book a "...
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  • 1,594
9 votes
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Is there a Sumerian Pandora myth?

The Pandora story you cite is 100% Greek. There's probably a pre-Hesiodic tradition surrounding it, but as it stands, it's not Mesopotamian. However, there are parallels with Eve from Hebrew ...
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  • 6,578
9 votes
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What kind of being was Huwawa?

Clay mask of the demon Huwawa, The British Museum. From Sippar, southern Iraq, about 1800-1600 BC. Huwawa was a demonic creature, of neither mortal nor godly origin, created by Enlil to guard the ...
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  • 1,885
8 votes
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Who were the Anunnaki according to Sumerians' tales?

The term Anunnaki (alternate spellings: Anunnaku, Anunna, Anuna) is applied inconsistently, and the meaning appears to shift over time. It may be a term applied to a pantheon of the gods of the ...
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  • 9,108
8 votes
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What kind of distinctive clothing depicted Sumerian gods?

The four-tiered headress is frequently repeated in representations mesopotamian deities. Some other examples include: A bust of an unknown god the Burney Relief, which depicts either Inanna or ...
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  • 9,108
8 votes
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Are the Anunnaki mentioned in the Bible?

How could they be related ? Anakim just means "sons of Anak". It is just a race of giants, and there is nothing giving them godlike power or something. Anunnaki, as I explained in another post, means ...
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  • 467
8 votes

Why is Gilgamesh considered to be one-third human and two-third god?

Presumably because he seemed that much more like a god than like a man. Our present understanding of heredity was not yet available, and absent that, the proportion between the genetic inheritances ...
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8 votes
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Why did humanizing Enkidu take a work of a prostitute and not of an ordinary woman?

Perceptions on prostitution have changed significantly over time. While it may seem strange today that Shamhat is a prostitute, in the ancient Near East her role was sacred, a role akin to a priestess....
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  • 16.7k
7 votes

Why does Ishtar go to the underworld?

Ishtar was the goddess of fertility. She was married to Tammuz and when he died Ishtar was still young. She fell then in love with Gilgamesh (when he was king) but it seems he was not interested in ...
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  • 2,060
7 votes
Accepted

What is the difference between Igigi and Anunnaki deities?

If I remember well, they are 2 different classes of gods. In this myth of the creation of the Human (saga of Atrahasis), It is said that Anunnaki deities were ruling in the heaven, it comes from the ...
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  • 467
7 votes

Why is Gilgamesh considered to be one-third human and two-third god?

He had three parents. The belief in the divinity of royal lines, in several ancient cultures of the region, was maintained by the concept that the king was possessed by a god (usually the head of the ...
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6 votes

What is the meaning of the star symbols appearing on seal VA 243?

Nope. Not even close (okay, a little bit). According to my source, the symbol is actually a star (just one). It looks kinda confusing like a solar system or a Sun. To make a Sun, you must at least ...
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  • 2,067
6 votes
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What was the Plant of Everlasting Youth?

The information about the Plant of Everlasting Youth form the Sumerian mythos can be found on the second half of The Epic of Gilgamesh. In the Tablet eleven Utnapishtim's wife asks her husband to ...
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  • 2,060
6 votes
Accepted

How did Gilgamesh die?

According to The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature, my best guess from reading the translated text provided is he died of old age : ..... hero ...... has lain down and is never to rise ...
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  • 2,281
6 votes

What is the meaning of the star symbols appearing on seal VA 243?

Something I never see mentioned concerning this seal and the "solar system" is why only including Pluto makes no sense. Since you can't see all the planets with the naked eye, I believe the idea is ...
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6 votes

Why did humanizing Enkidu take a work of a prostitute and not of an ordinary woman?

As Mesopotamia was one of the first places where our species built cities, naturally myth from there has to try to make sense of this new way of life, and characteristically approaches the problem by ...
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