11

Time and chronology tend to be fairly loose in Greek mythology, particularly as there are usually multiple authors treating the same subjects. Regardless, Achilles is presumed to be a youth at the start of the war. In this famous vase painting, he is depicted as beardless: You can read more about this vase at the Perseus site at Tufts. You may recall that ...


10

There have actually been many names from almost as many sources. In the Aeneid, Virgil described the priestess as "Deiphobe, daughter of Glaucus": ni iam praemissus Achtes Adforet, atque una Phoebi Triviaeque sacerdos, Deiphobe Glauci, fatur quae talia regi: 'Non hoc ista sibi tempus spectacula poscit; 'Nunc grege de intacto septem mactare ...


9

There is not a canonical answer to this. Helen's portrayal in the Greek and Roman sources presents a wide variety of different interpretations. Perhaps most canonical is Apollodorus' Bibliotecha. Unfortunately, we do not have this part of his work, though an epitome has survived. Here's what it says about Helen: Menelaus, with five ships in all under his ...


9

The wanderings of Menelaus were described in the “Nostoi” attributed to Agias of Troezen. The remnants of this poem are collected by M.L. West in the Loeb volume “Greek Epic Fragments”. This is older than Herodotus or Euripides.


8

The simple fact that in the Aeneid Vergil used Latin names is because the Aeneid was written in Latin. That is all there is to it. It was written much later—700 years later—and thus we cannot expect Vergil to have accurate traditions about the Trojans that wasn't filtered through the Greeks. The Romans almost always translated the Greek gods' names into ...


8

Hector's most famous kill is Patroclus, the second-in-command of Achilles over the Myrmidon forces on the Greek side of the Trojan War. Because of how close Patroclus was to Achilles, to whom he was related and had known since they were young, this led inevitably to Hector's death by the hand of Achilles, who was sore with vengefulness over his friend's ...


7

In Book 4 of the Odyssey, Menelaus mentions a few details of his voyage home, during his conversation with Telemachus: "I was trying to come on here, but the gods detained me in Egypt, for my hecatombs had not given them full satisfaction, and the gods are very strict about having their dues. Now off Egypt, about as far as a ship can sail in a day with ...


6

The earliest known account of the Judgement of Paris comes from the Cypria, a work which has since been lost. A preserved summary, however, states that: Alexandros judges for Aphrodite, encouraged by a promise of Helen in marriage. On the advice of Aphrodite, he has ships built . . . When he gets to Lacedaemonia, Alexandros is entertained as a ξένος by ...


5

Yes, the Trojans could have surrendered Helen to avoid war. Before the fighting began, an embassy composed of Menelaus and Odysseus was dispatched to Troy demanding the return of Helen. This the subject of Sophocles' now lost Helenes Apaitesis, and referenced during the Iliad by Antenor (who hosted the Greeks) and Agamemnon. Evidently, Priam rejected the ...


5

Okay, first of all, Apollo is actually pretty neutral in the beginning of the war, very much like Zeus. It's after Zeus orders him to go get involved that he enters the war. Zeus secretly favored the Trojans, and hence he sent Apollo to help them. Apollo did that. But we can't deny that Apollo did that just because Zeus asked him to. First of all, Apollo ...


5

Being the goddess of beauty and love doesn't turn Aphrodite harmless. Quite the contrary... Theoi site gives a full summary of Aphrodite's role in the Trojan war. Convinced Ares to side with the Trojans. Saved Paris when he lost his duel against Menelaus. Wounded by Diomedes while trying to save Aeneas. Takes part in the battle of the gods after Patroclus'...


5

The oversimplified, triple-diluted answer is that they used their Greek names. But then, with the Question worded as it is, the answer is not justifiably so simple. The breakdown thereof can be approached in two different ways: From inside the narrative world, in which we assume that the Trojans' depiction in the myths is accurate and thus the basis of ...


5

I've always thought it falls under Frazer's concept of Sympathetic Magic. In Ancient Greek, the idea of the lifeforce is bound with words related to breath or wind: ψυχή (psuke) and πνεῦμα (pneuma), specifically. Thus, releasing the life force, or breath, from Iphigenia's body raises the winds to sail to Troy. Likewise with Polyxena for the ride back. ...


5

It is an image of Pallas (hence the name) reputedly fashioned by Athena. "This was the Palladium, a legless image three cubits high, made by Athene in memory of her dead Libyan playmate Pallas... whose name Athene added to her own." Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, 158.i Graves is drawing partly from the Bibliotheca: "The story told about the ...


5

The Actual Duration of the War Towards the end of the Iliad, whose action takes place in the tenth and final year of the Trojan War, Helen says (in Line 765 of Book 24) that "this is now the twentieth year" since she departed from Lakedaimon [Lacedaemon] with Paris. "The words have puzzled the Scholiasts and commentators"1 for centuries because one might ...


5

You're in good academic company to think it originated in sacrifice, but likely as its instantiated in the epic tradition. For one, the Greeks did not sacrifice anything by throwing it off the wall. A simple killing is not the same as sacrifice. More importantly, the earliest representation is in the Iliad (24.734-738), where Andromache explains well enough ...


5

@Bellerophon's answer is popularly believed to be correct. In this case Cassandra was not prophesying the future. Hyginus (Fabulae XCIII) states that "Apollo brought it about that she should not be believed, though she gave true prophecies." ["ob quam rem Apollo fecit ut, cum vera vaticinaretur, fidem non haeret."] However, Hyginus uses the verb "...


5

The Trojan War is the continuation of that duel. The idea of a duel between individuals, with no collective consequences, reappears sometimes in history during times of rugged individualism: in the late chivalric Middle Ages, the Enlightenment, among Vikings, in the Wild West, etc. But apart from these exceptions, the feud, involving clan honor and clan ...


4

Ah, well, Not a exact answer, as this is probably where you got it from, but, here goes! At least three Ancient Greek authors denied that Helen ever went to Troy; instead, they suggested, Helen stayed in Egypt during the duration of the Trojan War. Those three authors are Euripides, Stesichorus, and Herodotus. In the version put forth by Euripides in his ...


4

It was quite common to sack towns on the trip to, from, and even during the war. (Compare to the medieval Crusaders.) I don't have time to run down specific examples, but there is a discussion here: Why did Homer’s Greeks sack so many cities in the Trojan War? Does it make them mostly pirates and slave raiders? Ostensibly the gentrified townsfolk were not ...


4

Which Languages? There is good reason to think that, as far as the myths are concerned, the Trojans probably did speak the same language as the Achaeans. At the foundation of Carthage its primary language would have been Phoenician. There is a lot of traffic described between Greece and Troy going as far back as the time of the Flood, since the founders ...


4

Sacrifices are usually expected to be of high quality and worth, pure, strong or unusual in some way. That's why virgins tend to be sacrificed in many myths and stories or rams, bulls and stallions (i.e. strong examples of masculinity). This is easily explained as sacrificing something of great value shows the strength of your devotion or desire. A heifer ...


3

In Madeline Miller's Song of Achilles she posits that, after the death of his beloved friend, Achilles is seeking death. This makes sense because the prophecy about Achilles' death was that if he took part in the fighting at Troy, he would die there. Once he enters combat to avenge Patroclus, his fate is sealed. Miller presents his time post-Patroclus as ...


3

No. From both an ancient philosophical approach, and one based on human nature, this was impossible. Some of the answers cite the Iliad to show some attempts to avert the city's destruction, but these were already doomed to fail. Priam decided not to give Helen back directly, and when Menelaus bested Paris in combat, the gods spirited him away. In fact, ...


3

Iapyx the son of Daedalus is a different character from the physician compatriot of Aeneas. For some reason certain translators, especially in previous centuries, render the name of Aeneas's companion into English as Iapis (e.g. John Dryden's 1697 translation of Virgil's Æneid; William Smith's 1867 Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology; & ...


3

I am not sure where you got the idea that the truce in Book VII was a "sacred truce", but I'm afraid that is not the case. The concept of the sacred truce is very specific, it's a device designed to protect people from visiting the games. The truce in the Iliad is sacred only in the manner that the gods are directly involved. In all other respects, it's a ...


3

Homer nowhere mentions any sacrifice of Iphigenia, and debate is ancient on whether the “Iphianassa” whom Agamemnon offers as a potential bride to Achilles, at Iliad 9.145 & 9.287, is the same person. Since nowhere have I found any hint that Achilles was necrophiliac, this offer clearly implies that the daughter in question was still alive so ...


3

A lot of Greek myths dealing with the concept of fate/destiny (Oedipus most clearly), are used to illustrate how you can't escape your fate, no matter how you try or what measures you take, it will always find you and fighting it will only make it worse. That's the main takeaway from these stories, so I think it's safe to say it reflects at least a fairly ...


3

There's a nice little book by Malcolm Davies (St John's College, Oxford) titled "The Greek Epic Cycle", which deals exactly with what you are asking for. Here's the table of contents of the edition I have: The Epic Cycle The Titanomachy The Oedipodeia The Thebais The Epigoni The Cypria The Aethiopis The Little Iliad The Sack of Troy The Returns ...


2

Apollodorus also has a Catalogue of Ships at Troy in the Epitome of the Bibliotheca (E.3.11 ff.) You may also be interested in this paper: A Programmatic Function of the Iliadic Catalogue of Ships


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