14

In general, English "demigod" refers to a person who is partially divine and partially human. Most typically, this refers to someone who has one divine and one human parent (like Hercules, or the Pandavas), making them 50% divine. But the case of Gilgamesh is slightly different. Rather than being half-divine, Gilgamesh is in fact two-thirds divine. When ...


13

The plant Gilgamesh found was not a lotus (emphasis mine) So Utanapishtim revealed to Gilgamesh another secret of the gods. Under the sea there is a wondrous plant, like a flower with thorns, that will return a man to his youth. Gilgamesh then opened the conduit, tied stones to his feet, plunged into the deep (Apsu), and retrieved the plant. source: ...


10

I understand the question to be asking what is the author’s intent in having Gilgamesh describe Ishtar’s prior lovers in the way he does, and what, as a literary matter, did the author want to convey through that scene. I agree with Jeffrey Tigay (p. 42) that there was a single creative mind behind the Old Babylonian, Akkadian text, who deserves to be ...


10

The definition for demigod differs from culture to culture. But the definition of demigod, which can be used here in the case of Gilgamesh would be "half-god". Gilgamesh was a Sumerian king who wished to become immortal. Endowed with superhuman strength, courage, and power, he appeared in numerous legends and myths, including the Epic of Gilgamesh. From ...


9

This is not at all a stupid question! In fact, scholars have a couple theories on this. According to the standard interpretation, the cedar forests refer to the famous cedar forests of Lebanon and Syria, which were highly sought after by kings as far back as Sargon. Sargon of Akkad, based in Akkad in now northern Iraq, would boast of his conquests of the far ...


9

Clay mask of the demon Huwawa, The British Museum. From Sippar, southern Iraq, about 1800-1600 BC. Huwawa was a demonic creature, of neither mortal nor godly origin, created by Enlil to guard the forest of Lebanon : I never knew a mother who bore me, nor a father who brought me up! I was born in the mountains... He is described in The Epic of ...


9

How that word, here translated as "deep", should be translated is a somewhat contentious issue. The word is nagbu, and there appear to be two main translations to consider. Totality, all things Abyss, or deep The former seems to be the most common in translations. The latter was chosen here. While totality may be the most common in the many ...


9

Gilgamesh was a recurring character in Mesopotamian myths/stories. The most renown of those stories is the Epic of Gilgamesh where those numbers appears. But he and his slave/servant/friend/buddy/lover Enkidu are in numerous other stories. And in none other those funny proportions are mentioned. It is also good to be aware that the Epic comes to us in ...


8

Presumably because he seemed that much more like a god than like a man. Our present understanding of heredity was not yet available, and absent that, the proportion between the genetic inheritances from father and mother was pretty much anyone’s guess. In the Eumenides of Aeschylus, the god Apollo claims the father’s share is 100%! (The chorus ...


8

Perceptions on prostitution have changed significantly over time. While it may seem strange today that Shamhat is a prostitute, in the ancient Near East her role was sacred, a role akin to a priestess. An ordinary woman would lack the divine favour Shamhat's role offered her. Therefore she would not be able to civilize Enkidu. Further reading: Sacred ...


8

The main reason why it exists in the narrative is that it precedes the epic by quite a long time. Before the epic of Gilgamesh was put together as one single narrative, hymns of Gilgamesh were performed separately. These are the Sumerian predecessors of what's commonly read today. They can fortunately for us be easily found on the internet at The Electronic ...


6

The Seven Sages are the Apkallu. The Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible states that they were servants of Ea, responsible for teaching mankind how to govern and start civilization. They interacted with the ancient kings1, and Gilgamesh is referred to in one "cylinder" as "master of the Apkallu". Additionally, the seven Apkallu became ...


6

Yeah... Now I don't like to give any answer to such an old thing, but here it is: What you cite is the Nineveh's version of the traditional Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. But what you have to see first is that the Epic per se comes in several versions (included partial Hittite ones, somehow different) and the Epic is borrowing from older traditions. Here is ...


6

The information about the Plant of Everlasting Youth form the Sumerian mythos can be found on the second half of The Epic of Gilgamesh. In the Tablet eleven Utnapishtim's wife asks her husband to offer a parting gift to Gilgamesh, so he learns that at the bottom of the sea there lives a boxthorn-like plant that will make him young again (Note: there ...


6

According to The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature, my best guess from reading the translated text provided is he died of old age : ..... hero ...... has lain down and is never to rise again. ...... has lain down and is never to rise again. He of well-proportioned limbs ...... has lain down and is never to rise again. ...... has lain down and ...


6

The King's Dream seems to be a prominent theme in the ancient world. For example, in the book of Daniel (in biblical literature), the troubling dreams of the kings are announced, though no details are given for the sake of the literature. The point is that the king is "testing" his subjects, and will reward the interpreter that both knows what the dream is ...


6

As Mesopotamia was one of the first places where our species built cities, naturally myth from there has to try to make sense of this new way of life, and characteristically approaches the problem by antithesis. Gilgamesh is the man of the city, and Enkidu, created to be his antithesis, is the man of the wilderness. Gilgamesh responds to the challenge ...


6

The Graeco-Roman equivalent is Hermaphroditus and Salmacis. Although in Ovid's Metamorphoses, the original text must be older, as it is preserved on an inscription (the so-called "Pride of Halicarnassus") found near Salmacis (a fountain near Halicarnassus). I reproduced the relevant part below: "Pride of Halicarnassus" lines 11-22: Father Zeus made the ...


5

He had three parents. The belief in the divinity of royal lines, in several ancient cultures of the region, was maintained by the concept that the king was possessed by a god (usually the head of the pantheon) on the night that he begot the next king. In this way each king is both the son of his father (the last king) and a god. In the case of Gilgamesh his ...


5

It means that he learned great wisdom from Ea. This summary states The story begins as if by a narrator of a later era. Gilgamesh had all knowledge and wisdom, he was "he who saw the Deep" [Deep=nagbu, the cosmic domain of the god of wisdom, Ea], "surpassing all other kings". Also worth mentioning is that Wikipedia stats The later "Standard" version ...


4

According to this lecture by Michael Sugrue, Enkidu is chosen to die because of his hubris and also his refusal to accept his human status which exceeds that of Gilgamesh. For example, Enkidu throws meat at the goddess Ishtar, and actively tries to create a conflict with her. Although Gilgamesh (wisely) rejects the sexual advances of Ishtar, he does not ...


4

Short answer. Uanna Enmegalamma Uannedugga Enmedugga Enmebulugga An-Enlilda Utuabzu The sources for these are in the Perspectives on Language and Text: Essays and Poems in Honor . Each if these sages are said to be responsible for the building or the laying of the foundations of the following cities in Uruk Shuruppak Ur Kesh Kullab Eridu Nippur Lagash


3

I always thought it had to deal with the fact that kings were seen as dieties, so if the king is half god than that may be were the one third human comes in, but i say this without knowing Mesopotamian claims to royalty and dietyship.


3

The Story of Atrahasis, which is thought to be closely related to The Epic of Gilgamesh, is partially lost, but enough fragments remain to figure out its meeting. Humanity annoys the gods many times with its incessant noise. The gods, spearheaded by Enlil, cast several plagues on humanity; Enki (Ea) advises Atrahasis on how to help his people through each ...


2

Story time! I will briefly summarize the corresponding parts of some stories which I believe have some parallels to the Šamḫat-episode in the epic of Gilgameš, providing each time a link to Wikipedia which often contains more substantial summaries of the stories. Literature The most obvious parallel might not be a mythological, but a literary creation: ...


2

I suspect it has to do with the function of heroes to "tame the landscape" and render locales safe for humans by slaying monsters, similar to Theseus on his journey to Athens and Heracles with many of his tasks. Challenging the rule of heaven is a theme in the Epic of Gilgamesh--he also rejects Ishtar and is undaunted by her fury. It's worth noting that ...


2

The words “killing” and “stone men” might be inaccurate. Unfortunately, researchers don’t seem to be sure about what exactly is going on in this passage. The key question is what or who the enigmatic “stone ones” are: the meaning of šūt abni remains unclear. In the Penguin edition, the translation “Stone Ones” is used. In other translations I have read “...


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